Directions (1-11): Each of the following questions has a paragraph from which the last sentence has been deleted. From the given options, choose the one that completes the paragraph in the most appropriate way.
1Q. By calling for exempting unionized businesses from the minimum wage, unions are creating more incentives for employers to favor unionized workers over the non-unionized sort. Such exemptions strengthen their power. This is useful because for all the effort unions throw at raising the minimum wage laws for better pay to have an awkward habit of undermining union clout. (.......................)
(A) High rates of unionization make minimum-wage rules unnecessary as collaborative wage setting achieves the flexibility goals of a low minimum wage and the fairness goals of a high one.
(B) Workers who have no real alternative to employment in the unregulated shadows of the labor market are even more vulnerable to exploitation and abuse than workers with the legal right to take low wages.
(C) The labor ethos of worker solidarity seems hollow if non-union workers are underpriced by union workers and left unemployed or scrambling for unauthorized work.
(D) Once employers are obliged to pay the same minimum wage to both unionized and non-unionized labor, workers often see less reason to pay the dues to join a union.
(E) However, labors do not want to join a union because the dues they pay to join the same adds to the burden on them.
: Option (D)
: Sentence A talks about the effect of high rates of unionization. It makes minimum wage laws unnecessary as the unions are able to achieve flexible and fair wages through collaboration. This sentence does not complete the given paragraph, which discusses the effect of minimum wage laws on the clout of the union and not the vice-versa.
Sentence B discusses the case of workers without the legal right to take the low wages (as set by the minimum wage law) and no real alternative to employment being more vulnerable to exploitation. This is a new line of thought and does not complete the paragraph given.
Sentence C argues that the spirit of worker solidarity seems hollow if non-unionized workers are under-priced by their unionized counterparts. This is a thought that seems, at the outset, to be related to the idea discussed in the paragraph. Unions are calling for exempting unionized businesses from the minimum wage. Thus they are encouraging employers to prefer unionized workers over the non-unionized and thus going against the ethos of worker solidarity.
However, this choice is incorrect, as the given paragraph is about why and how unions are seeking to increase their power having worked towards minimum wage laws, which, rather contrarily, decrease their clout. Sentence C does not carry forward the idea in the penultimate sentence about how laws for better pay have the “awkward habit of undermining union clout”.
Sentence D discusses the idea that workers have less incentive to pay and join a union when protected by minimum wage laws. This, clearly, undermines the clout of the unions. Thus sentence D provides a good choice to complete the given paragraph, carrying forward the idea expressed in the penultimate line.
2Q. Trade protectionism, disguised as concern for the climate, is raising its head. Citing competitiveness concerns, powerful industrialized countries are holding out threats of a levy on imports of energy-intensive products from developing countries that refuse to accept their demands. The actual source of protectionist sentiment in the OECD countries is, of course, their current lackluster economic performance, combined with the challenges posed by the rapid economic rise of China and India – in that order. (.......................)
(A) Climate change is evoked to bring trade protectionism through the back door.
(B) OECD countries are taking refuge in climate change issues to erect trade barriers against these two countries.
(C) Climate change concerns have come as a convenient stick to beat the rising trade power of China and India.
(D) Defenders of the global economic status quo are posing as climate change champions.
(E) Today’s climate change champions are the perpetrators of global economic inequity.
: Option (D)
: Options (A) and (C) are very generalized statements. Option (B) is a repetition of the idea presented in the beginning of the paragraph. This paragraph talks about how developed countries indulge in trade protectionism as a move against China and India’s economic rise under the guise of climate concern. Option (D) and (E) talk about the same thing but (D) goes along with the subtle suggestive tone of the paragraph while (E) is more curt in its accusation of ‘perpetrators of inequity’. Hence (D) is the correct option which goes with the meaning of the sentence.
3Q. The 16th century in Europe was a great century of change. The humanists and artists of the Renaissance would help characterize the age as one of individualism and self-creativity. Humanists such as Petrarch helped restore the dignity of mankind while men like Machiavelli injected humanism into politics. When all is said and done, the Renaissance helped to secularize European society. (.......................)
(A) The year 1543 can be said to have marked the origin of the Scientific Revolution, with Copernicus publishing De Revolutionibus and setting in motion a wave of scientific advance.
(B) The century witnessed the growth of royal power, the appearance of centralized monarchies and the discovery of new lands.
(C) The very powerful notion that man makes his own history and destiny took root.
(D) In the meantime, urbanization continued unabated as did the growth of universities.
(E) Besides this, industrialization also played an important role in the development of Europe.
: Option (C)
: Option (A) talks of the year 1543 heralding the Scientific Revolution. This is not the correct sentence to complete the given paragraph as it does not relate to humanism. Option (B) discusses the growth of royal power and centralized monarchies at this time. Again, we can rule out this option, as it does not relate to humanism (human interests, values, and dignity) in the 16th century. Option (C) clearly is the correct option. The very powerful notion that man creates his own history and destiny took root in the 16th century. This carries forward the idea discussed in the rest of the paragraph. Option (D) discusses urbanization and the growth of universities. This is unrelated to the central idea of the given paragraph.
4Q. Most people at their first consultation take a furtive look at the surgeon’s hands in the hope of reassurance. Prospective patients look for delicacy, sensitivity, steadiness, perhaps unblemished pallor. On this basis, Henry Perowne loses a number of cases each year. Generally, he knows it’s about to happen before the patient does: the downward glance repeated, the prepared questions beginning to falter, the overemphatic thanks during the retreat to the door. (.......................)
(A) Other people do not communicate due to their poor observation.
(B) Other patients don’t like what they see but are ignorant of their right to go elsewhere.
(C) But Perowne himself is not concerned.
(D) But others will take their place, he thought.
(E) These hands are steady enough, but they are large.
: Option (C)
: In the paragraph, the author suggests why the doctor loses some of his patients. Option (E) can easily be eliminated as the pronoun “these” has no antecedent in the paragraph. Option (B) & (D) are farfetched as they are to do with the doctor’s attitude towards the problem, which the paragraph does not indicate in any way. Option (A) can also be done away with as it suggests those patients who fail to speak up and not about those who leave his treatment, as indicated in the paragraph. Hence Option (C) fits in perfectly.
5Q. Age has a curvilinear relationship with the exploitation of opportunity. Initially, age will increase the likelihood that a person will exploit an entrepreneurial opportunity because people gather much of the knowledge necessary to exploit opportunities over the course of their lives and because age provides credibility in transmitting that information to others. However, as people become older, their willingness to bear risks declines, their opportunity costs rise, and they become less receptive to new information. (.......................)
(A) As a result, people transmit more information rather than experiment with new ideas as they reach an advanced age.
(B) As a result, people are reluctant to experiment with new ideas as they reach an advanced age.
(C) As a result, only people with lower opportunity costs exploit opportunity when they reach an advanced age.
(D) As a result, people become reluctant to exploit entrepreneurial opportunities when they reach an advanced age.
(E) As a result, people depend on credibility rather than on novelty as they reach an advanced age.
: Option (D)
: The relationship between a person’s age and his likelihood of exploiting new opportunities is presented in the passage. When people gain more knowledge and experience they try to exploit new opportunities. However, as they grow even older they try to avoid risks and become less receptive to new ideas. Hence at an advanced age, a person becomes reluctant to exploit new opportunities as he wants to avoid risks. Choice (A) can be ruled out because the focus of the passage is on the exploitation of opportunity whereas this option talks of ‘transmit more information’ and ‘experiment with new ideas’. Choice (B) can be eliminated as it categorically states that they are reluctant to “experiment with new ideas. Since the context is of “entrepreneurial opportunity option (D) becomes better as the concluding line. Choice (C) says people with lower opportunity cost exploit opportunity when they became old whereas the passage says that “as people become older less receptive to new information. Choice (E) introduces a new concept of ‘credibility’ which is inappropriate in the concluding line.
6Q. Given the cultural and intellectual interconnections, the question of what is ‘Western’ and what is ‘Eastern’ (or Indian) is often hard to decide, and the issue can be discussed only in more dialectical terms. The diagnosis of thought as ‘purely Western’ or ‘purely Indian’ can be very illusory. (.......................)
(A) Thoughts are not the kind of things that can be easily categorized.
(B) Though ‘Occidentalism’ and ‘orientalism’ as dichotomous concepts have found many adherents.
(C) ‘East is East and West is West’ has been a discredited notion for a long time now.
(D) Compartmentalizing thoughts is often desirable.
(E) The origin of thought is not the kind of thing to which ‘purity’ happens easily.
: Option (E)
: Option (A) can be easily eliminated as it is a mere repetition of the ideas presented in the paragraph. Option (B) is a little farfetched as it should come one or two more sentences later in the paragraph. Option (C) does not match with the idea presented in the passage. Option (D) does not match with the tone of the paragraph. Option (E) completes the idea as the emphasis in the last line of the paragraph is that the idea of pure Western and pure Indian thoughts is deceptive.
7Q. Relations between the factory and the dealer are distant and usually strained as the factory tries to force cars on the dealers to smooth out production. Relations between the dealer and the customer are equally strained because dealers continuously adjust prices or make deals or to adjust demand with supply while maximizing profits. This becomes a system marked by a lack of long-term commitment on either side, which maximizes feelings of mistrust. In order to maximize their bargaining positions, everyone holds back information or the dealer about the product and the consumer about his true desires. (.......................)
(A) As a result, “deal making” becomes rampant, without concern for customer satisfaction.
(B) As a result, inefficiencies creep into the supply chain.
(C) As a result, everyone treats the other as an adversary, rather than as an ally.
(D) As a result, fundamental innovations are becoming scarce in the automobile industry.
(E) As a result, everyone loses in the long run.
: Option (E)
: The passage explains the kind of differences that exist between the components in the supply chain, (i.e. production to distribution to consumer). The nature of the differences results in a system lacking commitment on the part of the components, and lacking transparency. The paragraph is best closed with the option that points to the logical result of such a situation – that is provided in choice e ‘everyone loses in the long run’. Choice (A) is inappropriate since, in ‘deal-making’, the customer would have his own satisfaction in mind. Choice (B) brings in circumstances that would follow in continuation. Choice (C) brings in a thought contrary to the tone of the paragraph Choice (E) is not relevant to the content of the paragraph.
8Q. The East India Company no longer exists, and it has, thankfully, no exact modern equivalent. Walmart, which is the world’s largest corporation in revenue terms, does not number among its assets a fleet of nuclear submarines; neither Facebook nor Shell possesses regiments of infantry. Yet the East India Company – the first great
multinational corporation, and the first to run amok – was the ultimate model for many of today’s joint-stock corporations. The most powerful among them do not need their own armies: they can rely on governments to protect their interests and bail them out. The East India Company remains history’s most terrifying warning about the potential for the abuse of corporate power – and the insidious means by which the interests of shareholders become those of the state. Three hundred and fifteen years after its founding, its story has never been more current. (.......................).
(A) The East India Company’s story is the first example of a nation-state extracting, as its price for saving a failing corporation, the right to regulate and severely rein it in.
(B) For all the power wielded today by the world’s largest corporations – whether ExxonMobil, Walmart or Google – they are tame beasts compared with the ravaging territorial appetites of the militarized East India Company.
(C) Answerable only to its shareholders and with no stake in the just governance of the region, or its long-term wellbeing, the East India Company’s rule quickly turned into the straightforward pillage of India, and the rapid transfer westwards of its wealth.
(D) If history shows anything, it is that in the intimate dance between the power of the state and that of the corporation, while the latter can be regulated, it will use all the resources in its power to resist.
(E) East India Company has no modern counterpart today.
: Option (A)
: The East India Company’s story is the first example of a nation-state extracting, as its price for saving a failing corporation, the right to regulate and severely rein it in. The given paragraph discusses the East India Company and its relevance in today’s context, especially with regard to large multinational companies and the power they wield over the governments. Statement A does not conclude the given paragraph. It discusses a different line of thought, of how a government saving a company in crisis extracted from it, in turn, the right to regulate. Option (B)- For all the power wielded today by the world’s largest corporations – whether ExxonMobil, Walmart or Google – they are tame beasts compared with the ravaging territorial appetites of the militarized East India Company. Statement B states that the East India Company was far more powerful than the largest corporations of the world today. This is not the right option to conclude the paragraph, which talks of the similarities between the corporations of today and the lessons to be learned from the East India Company. Option (C)- Answerable only to its
shareholders and with no stake in the just governance of the region, or its long-term wellbeing, the East India Company’s rule quickly turned into the straightforward pillage of India, and the rapid transfer westwards of its wealth. Statement C tells us how the East India Company quickly rose to power. However, it does not conclude or add to the given paragraph in terms of how and what its example teaches the corporations of today. Option (E) does not go with the sense of the paragraph. Option (D)- If history shows anything, it is that in the intimate dance between the power of the state and that of the corporation, while the latter can be regulated, it will use all the resources in its power to resist. This statement summarizes the relevance of the East India Company in the context of today’s corporations perfectly. This is hence the right option to conclude the paragraph.
9Q. We can usefully think of theoretical models as maps, which help us navigate unfamiliar territory. The most accurate map that is possible to construct would be of no practical use whatsoever, for it would be an exact replica, on exactly the same scale, of the place where we were. Good maps pull out the most important features and throw away a huge amount of much less valuable information. Of course, maps can be bad as well as good one witness the attempts by medieval Europe to produce a map of the world. In the same way, a bad theory, no matter how impressive it may seem in principle, does little or nothing to help us understand a problem. (.......................)
(A) But good theories, just like good maps, are invaluable, even if they are simplified.
(B) But good theories, just like good maps, will never represent unfamiliar concepts in detail.
(C) But good theories, just like good maps, need to balance detail and feasibility of representation.
(D) But good theories, just like good maps, are accurate only at a certain level of abstraction.
(E) But good theories, just like good maps, are useful in the hands of a user who knows their limitations.
: Option (A)
: The passage compares maps with theories. Good maps give only the “most important features and leave out less valuable information. So too are good theories. Choice (B) categorically states that good theories will never represent unfamiliar concepts whereas a concept being familiar or unfamiliar depends on a person’s knowledge”. Choice (C) can be ruled out because the passage does not talk of balancing details with the feasibility of representation. Choice (D) cannot be the answer because maps don’t have to become abstract to be accurate. Choice (E) is not the answer because the paragraph has not mentioned a user so far. Hence, (A) is the correct answer.
10Q. In the evolving world order, the comparative advantage of the United States lies in its military force. Diplomacy and international law have always been regarded as annoying encumbrances unless they can be used to advantage against an enemy. Every active player in world affairs professes to seek only peace and to prefer negotiation to violence and coercion. (.......................)
(A) However, diplomacy has often been used as a mask by nations which intended to use force.
(B) However, when the veil is lifted, we commonly see that diplomacy is understood as a disguise for the rule of force.
(C) However, history has shown that many of these nations do not practice what they profess.
(D) However, history tells us that peace is professed by those who intend to use violence.
(E) However, when unmasked, such nations reveal a penchant for the use of force.
: Option (B)
: All the choices provided seem to follow from the last line of the passage. However, since the statement indicates what is professed, the contradiction would be in the intentions behind that – best expressed in choice (B). In addition, choice (B) is the only sentence that corresponds to the singular “every active player” – all the other sentences use plurals. Hence, option (B) is the correct option.
11Q. Cancer of the nervous system, brain, breast, ovaries, lungs, and mouth tops cancer cases in Haryana, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh, as per the Fortis Memorial Research Institute (FMRI) cancer registry. Among the few private institutes set up in 2013 to collect data on the prevalence and trends in cancer in India, the registry aims to help authorities make better decisions to combat cancer. It includes a pre-devised questionnaire, which records information based on socio-demographic factors, diagnosis, the clinical extent of the disease, stage, treatment, prognosis, etc., as recorded by doctors. (.......................)
(A) However, challenges exist in the availability of updated data for the public and stakeholders.
(B) Such a database is critical for yearly mapping of prevalence, future planning of resources, assessment of preventive measures and charting disease trends
(C) A database is critical for yearly mapping of prevalence, planning of resources, assessment of preventive measures and charting trends
(D) The data is then validated using quality control programmes followed by cancer registries of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
(E) None of the above.
: Option (D)
: Option (D) is the correct and most apt choice for the given paragraph and fits the paragraph most suitably. Option (D) is correct as in the last few sentences of the passage were talking about recording information and thus our option which talks about validating it further is correct.