: When in a sentence ‘and’ is being used, it should always be preceded by the conjunction ‘both’.
- She looks beautiful in both red and pink dress.
- He will be studying both English and Hindi as his main subjects.
: For comparing two or more things in sentence conjunctions ‘as-as’ and ‘so-as’ is used. In negative sentences, conjunction ‘so…as’ is used where as in affirmative sentences and negative sentences conjunction ‘as…as’ can be used.
- You do not sing so well as your sister.
- He is as good as the rest of his classmates.
: In a sentence when ‘although’ or ‘though’ is used it should be followed by a coma (,) or a yet.
- Though he tried hard, he still could not finish the project on time.
- Although the notes are very much, still the students copy them to study for the exams.
: While writing, correct pair of words, like no sooner….than, hardly…. when, or before, scarcely.. when or before, barely…. when or before, should be used always.
Do not use negative words like no, never, not with hardly, scarcely and barely because these are also negative words.
- No sooner did I step out then it started to rain.
- Hardly had I stepped out of my bed before having lunch.
- Barely had he got his new phone before it was stolen.
: When using lest in a sentence, always remember that should or first form of verb should come after it.
- Take an umbrella with you lest it should rain.
: Unless and until are negative terms and are time oriented and action oriented respectively. Since these words are negatives so do not use words like no, never, not with these words.
- Wait here until your parents work.
- Unless you study hard, you will not succeed in life.
: While using doubt and doubtful in negative sentences, it is followed by if and whether. Where as in interrogative sentences, that is preceded by doubt or doubtful.
- I doubt if they will attend the wedding ceremony. (This is a negative sentence.)
- I do not doubt that he will be able to climb up the rope. (This is an affirmative sentence.)
: The correct pairing is ‘not only…but also’. Words being used other than these are wrong pair of words.
- He let down not only his parents but also his best friend.
: “And” is always preceded by between in order to frame the sentence, in the same manner “To” is always followed by from, when used in a sentence.
- You have to choose between politics and geography.
- My sister keeps dancing from morning to evening.
: In a sentence when more than two things or persons are used, ‘none of’ is used. ‘Neither of’ means ‘none of the two’ in other sense.
- None of his relatives came forward to help his family.
When more than two persons or things are used, ‘one of’ is used. ‘Either of’ means ‘one of the two’ in other words.
- One of your siblings is responsible for the damage done to the car.
: While writing, people generally tend to use the phrase ‘seldom or ever’ which is a wrong phrase. Use the correct phrase which is ‘seldom or never’.
- The local channel seldom or never telecasts good movies.
: While using rather or other in a sentence, conjunction ‘than’ should be placed after them.
Rules for using comas in coordinating conjunctions
- She has no other choice than to go for higher education.
- I would rather read a novel than go and party in a club.
1. When a coordinating conjunction links two independent clauses, put a coma before the coordinating conjunction.
- Rita walked her dog, so she got the loaf of bread.
- I want to go see the play, but my brother has my scooter.
- Alia loves parrots, yet she does not want one in her own house.
2. When a coordinating conjunction links two items, no need to use a coma in those cases.
- My father likes guavas and mangoes.
- My sister is old but foolish.
3. The use of coma is optional when a coordinating conjunction is used with a list of items i.e. three or more numbers.
- She is cooking dal, making chapattis, listening to songs and talking to mother in the kitchen. (This was without the coma.)
- She is cooking dal, making chapattis, listening to songs, and talking to mother in the kitchen. (This was with the use of coma.)
The image below shows some more rules regarding conjunctions.
The exemplified table for coma rules is as under.
|Rule 1: Subordinate Conjunctions
||If, when, because, although and all the same words.
||Because I like teaching, I am considering a teaching career.
|Rule 2: Coordinate Cconjunctions
||For, although, nor, but, or, yet, so
||I suggested movie, but everyone else wanted a disco night.
|Rule 3: Interrupters
||Who and which
||Tina who joined the team just now, will be the captain next year.