# Inferences Practice Quiz

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# Inferences Practice Quiz

### Introduction

Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences deductions. The word infer primarily means to "carry forward". The inference is theoretically traditionally divided into deduction and induction. The deduction is inference deriving logical conclusions from premises known or assumed to be true, with the laws of valid inference being studied in logic. Induction is an inference from particular premises to a universal conclusion. In general: Deductive Reasoning works from the more general to the more specific whilst the Inductive Reasoning works the other way, moving from specific observations to broader generalizations and theories.

### Quiz

TYPE-A
Direction (1-10): In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three statements. Find the statement(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.
1Q. Nobody gave much thought about those innocents who were at the receiving end of demonetization at the advent.
(I). Indians are a very emotional lot and tend to quickly come to conclusions without delving deep into issues. The public outcry against demonetization — especially by those with few solutions at their hand to face the problem of a cash crunch. The main criticism against the government is that demonetization has inflicted more pain on the poor and innocent while opening a window for the rich to cleanse their unaccounted income, of course, after paying a handsome share to the exchequer.
(II). If demonetization was a war, then those who lost their lives outside bank queues are true martyrs. These ordinary citizens sincerely believed the government’s intentions of bringing in transparency in the economy. Which is why they were willing to put their lives at risk to withdraw their hard-earned money in new currency. People waiting in endless queues outside banks to exchange old notes reportedly resulted in even deaths during the first few weeks after demonetization. Honoring the sacrifice of these true martyrs would be a fitting tribute on the first anniversary of demonetization.
(III). A year after Prime Minister Narendra Modi announced the ban on Rs 1000 and Rs 500 old banknotes, his government described demonetization as a historic and multidimensional success. Huge advertisements could be seen where Modi lauded 125 crore Indians for fighting a decisive battle against black money and corruption. Unfortunately, despite tall claims by BJP, the debate still rages whether the move has benefited the nation or done more harm than good.
(A) Both (I) & (III) (B) Both (II) & (III) (C) Only (I) (D) Only (II) (E) All of the above

Explanation: The inference drawn is about the people who faced severities during the period starting with the implementation of Demonetization till situations eased out. Statement (I) talks about the emotional outcry of people and their criticism about the government's step but nowhere presents any fact or example of unattended people's suffering. Statement (III) talks about only the introduction of the campaign and the related debates about its righteousness. Statement (II) presents soundly the fact that ordinary innocent people who believed in government intentions suffered the hardships and not much was done or thought about easing their suffering at the start of the process.
2Q. Extremism has spread even among Hindus, some of whom believe not in Satya Meva Jayate but in might is right.
(I). The Parivar proclaims an ideology of “Hindutva,” aimed at ensuring the predominance of Hinduism in Indian society, politics, and culture, which it promotes through tactics that include violence and terror. Its agenda includes subjugating or driving out people of other faiths, who total some 17 percent of the population. It castigates them as foreign faiths, imposed by foreign conquerors.
(II). All wanton violence and religious fundamentalism are wrong, be it of the right or the left, or of any religion, and needs to be identified, countered and condemned. In this context, the real question for Hindus is who, and for what reason, is today deliberately fanning this fanatical violence among them? According to established Hindu practice, disagreements should be resolved through debate, dialogue, and discussion, yet one has only to remember that it was a fanatical Hindu who killed one of the greatest messiahs of peace – Mahatma Gandhi.
(III). There is no denying that fringe right-wing groups have created an atmosphere of intolerance to outspoken writers and academics who question religious practices and myths, thereby putting pressure on freedom of speech and expression. The event of the killing of veteran writer Malleshappa Madivalappa Kalburgi demands the government not to go soft on Hindu fundamentalism and to “crack down” on these fringe elements in the same way it would deal with other “religion and ideology based extremist groups.”
(A) Both (I) & (II) (B) Both (I) & (III) (C) Both (II) &(III) (D) Only (I) (E) All of the above

Explanation: The inference drawn is that Hindu outfits can no longer deny the existence of extremism among their ranks. Statement (II) though mentions the killing of Mahatma Gandhi by a fanatical Hindu, it fails to state that it has been backed by the community. Statement (I) & (III) support the inference based on facts that fringe Hindus radicals have created an atmosphere of intolerance for writers, academics speaking against them and predominance of Hinduism in Indian society, politics, and culture, which it promotes through tactics that include violence and terror respectively.
3Q. It is important for the courts to examine disability as a ground for the grant of bail.
(I). The deplorable conditions in Indian prisons are well known. It is settled law now that prisoners may be deprived of personal liberty according to procedure established by law, but that does not include a derogation of their right to dignity. How do we begin to understand the sanctity of life, dignity and bodily integrity for a person with disabilities? If handcuffing is an extraordinary and excessive restraint on an ordinary prisoner, what constitutes excessive restraint beyond the writ of law for a person with disabilities? Placing him in solitary confinement with no support violates his right to life, bodily integrity, and autonomy even when conviction only imposes restraints on personal liberty.
(II). The Indian Constitution gives pride of place to the fundamental rights of a citizen, including the right to life and liberty. One would assume that it implies two basic legal principles: one, that the accused is innocent until proven guilty; and two, that bail is the norm and jail the exception. The stories of thousands of undertrials- including those with disabilities languishing in jails across the country, however, run against the grain of the constitutional promise that “no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to procedure established by law”.
(III). The Law Commission has done well to recommend a complete overhaul in the way courts grant bail. Bail must be the rule rather than the exception, given that every person charged with a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty. Reform in bail jurisprudence that includes fast disposal of bail applications, easier surety requirements and minimizing pretrial detention is overdue. Courts must deny bail only under three conditions. One, the person charged with the crime is likely to flee. Two, the accused is likely to tamper with evidence or influence witnesses. Three, the person is likely to repeat the same crime if granted bail.
(A) Only (III) (B) Only (I) (C) Only (II) (D) Both (I) & (II) (E) Both (II) & (III)

Explanation: The inference drawn is based upon the fact that if the court finds out a circumstance wherein there is a need for special physical assistance for the prisoner daily life activities i.e. with a physical disability, he should be allowed bail on this ground. Statements (II) and (III) beat around the bush with references to the Indian Constitution stating the right to life and liberty but it doesn't specify it particularly for the disabled accused. Statement (I) alone provides for consideration of a person's physical condition as a ground for bail provision.
4Q. Police investigators should not jump to conclusions, influenced by public outrage.
(I). That the police had to extract a false confession is downright disgraceful, but it is not an isolated case in a country known for its primitive investigative methods. In cases of demand of a result from the masses, putting a statement which is refutable isn't justified. Studies on police reforms have highlighted the need to make the investigation process more scientific and more rooted in forensic analysis, but custodial torture and extracted confessions continue to be reported. When two narratives emerge from different police agencies for a heinous murder, a sense of disquiet among the public is inevitable.
(II). Regimes come and regimes go, a new party and a new leadership add its own new pages to the annals of India’s political history. But India’s khaki tales continue with the same old narrative – hackneyed, violent and tragic, both for the people of the country as well as for the rank and file cops. Not trained properly for the job that requires mental strength to withstand public pressure they are often rounded up in botched up investigations. The strong arm of the state is severely weak within and the politicians want it that way; bereft of choice, cops take solace inventing their ‘powerless power’ where they can.
(III). Police bumbling closure in Pradyuman murder case is no exception. It points to systemic failures. It is often difficult to distinguish police investigation, especially carried out in the face of public and political pressure, from the witchhunt. Police with only rudimentary training in modern investigation, using beatings and threats as their main truth-seeking tools, have a long record of securing wrongful convictions, as well as letting the guilty walk free, sometimes wearing the halo of martyrdom. To explain this away as the failure of individuals is inadequate.
(A) Both (I) & (II) (B) Both (I) & (III) (C) Both (II) & (III) (D) All of the above (E) Only (III)

Explanation: The inference is drawn centers around the fact that police are not able to withstand public pressure and jump to conclusions that may be later refuted. Supporting this inference are Statements (I) & (III) which clearly mentions police investigations carried in wake of public pressure have resulted in debatable conclusions showing inadequacy. Statement (II) makes mention of the public pressure but then deviates to badly carried out investigations. It doesn't show that a public statement was issued on the basis of any conclusion.
5Q. More and more bilateral series has taken away the excitement from the game.
(I). Players often display more cricketing brilliance on the field as they would be watched by more viewers than in a bilateral ODI series. The most interesting feature of these tournaments is that they seldom get boring. On the other hand, a seven-match bilateral ODI series can become monotonous if one team holds inordinate sway in the opening matches.
(II). With repeated bilateral clashes between the same opponents, the fans hardly get to speculate as much as they liked to do when a number of teams brought a number of players and hence more fierce competition from the players. The near same combinations of the two teams make the scope of watching the game for some innovative batting or bowling battles, narrowed down to negligible. Moreover, Due to the bilateral nature of busy cricket schedules and the mushrooming of Twenty20 cricket leagues, the space for triangular cricket tournaments has been squeezed.
(III). The ODI tournaments were more keenly followed than bilateral ODI face-offs in general. This is for many reasons. In multilateral tournaments, one gets to see many teams participate and make a bid for the same trophy. The permutations and combinations of match results create a unique interest, allowing fans to constantly examine ways in which a particular team can reach the knock-out stage or clinch the title.
(A) Both (I) & (II) (B) Only II (C) Both (II) & (III) (D) Both (III) & (I) (E) All of the above

Explanation: The inference drawn on the basis of increasing bilateral faceoffs in ODI cricket to make game watching boring is supported by all the Statements (I) (II) & (III) as all statements mention the facts: the Number of bilateral series have increased with a decrease in more than 2 team series tournaments hence resulting in an increase of monotonous nature in these clashes.
6Q. The Vedic priest was like a recorded audio cassette.
(I). Massive grey matter density and cortical thickness increases in the brains of the Vedic priests which is very fascinating. We noted that while the ability of Vedic Pundits to perform large-scale, precise oral memorization and recitation of Vedic Sanskrit texts may, prima facie, appear extraordinary or bordering on impossible, textual memorization and recitation are in standard practice in traditional Sanskrit education in India.
(II). Traditional Vedic scholarship should not be confused with a priestly type of vocation or biblical scholarship. Different from Christian Priests who interpret and expostulate on the message of the Bible, their job is to keep the supposedly eternal and unchanging Veda alive, without changing a syllable.
(III). According to McNeill, a Brahmin priest was expected to be able to recite at least one of the Vedas. The practice was essential for several centuries when the Vedas had not yet been written down. It must have had a selective effect since priests would have been recruited from those able or willing to memorize long passages. It must have helped in the dissemination of the work since a memorized passage can be duplicated many times.
(A) Only (I) (B) Both (II) and (III) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All are correct

Explanation: Option (E) is the correct choice. In option (III) refers to “duplicated many times”, tape recorder means an apparatus for recording sounds on magnetic tape and afterward reproducing them, here, reproducing means produce a “copy”. Therefore in a way, the Brahmin priest was behaving like a tape recorder. The same can be said about option (II) where it says, they are supposed to keep the Veda unchanged and in the way it is again signifying that they act as a tape recorder. Option (I) is also correct as there is a reference of memorization and recitation. Therefore, option (E) is the correct choice.
7Q. Equity in access to doctors, diagnostics, and medicines for rural India must be a priority
(I). It is imperative for the government to recognize the limitations of a market-led mechanism in providing for a pure public good such as health. We need to move to a single-payer system with cost controls that make an efficient strategic purchase of health care from private and public facilities possible. This will require sustained investment and monitoring, and ensuring that the prescribed standard of access to a health facility with the requisite medical and nursing resources within a 3-km radius is achieved on priority.
(II). Templates for an upgraded rural health system have long been finalized and the Indian Public Health Standards were issued in 2007 and 2012, covering facilities from health subcentres upwards. The Centre has set ambitious health goals for 2020 and is in the process of deciding the financial outlay for various targets under the National Health Mission.
(III). Medical infrastructure in several surrounding districts and even neighboring States is so weak that a large number of very sick patients are sent to such apex hospitals as a last resort. The dysfunctional aspects of the system are evident from the Comptroller and Auditor General’s report. Even if the audit objections on financial administration were to be ignored, the picture that emerges in several States is one of inability to absorb the funds allocated, lack of essential medicines and unfilled doctor vacancies.
(A) Only (I) (B) Both (II) and (III) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All are correct

Explanation: Option (A) is the correct choice as the only paragraph (I) is correct. Paragraph (III) is talking about the dysfunctional element of our society only and is not giving any hint about how it must be tackled. Paragraph (II) is focusing on the topic of upgrading our system and facilities, but we cannot draw the given conclusion from it as the paragraph is very subtle in approach. Paragraph (I) is correct; refer to “pure public good such as health, ” and also prioritizing of access to health facilities with reasonable costs is the theme of the passage.
8Q. Regionalism is a subset of nationalism.
(I). The term regionalism at national level refers to a process in which sub-state actors become increasingly powerful. Power devolves from the central level to regional governments. These are the regions of the country, distinguished by culture, language, and other socio-cultural factors.
(II). Rather than subscribing to the ‘new regionalism,’ developing countries may examine other areas of cooperation with partners in the same geographical region and at a similar level of economic development, in a spirit of true regionalism which could help strengthen their strategies for national development and integration into the global economy.
(III). Regionalism has overtaken nationalism in States like Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and the Punjab, where the strength of national parties has diminished. The growth of unhealthy regionalism is in no small part due to an unethical rivalry between the two national parties — the Congress and the BJP — one that has undermined the principle of good governance and national welfare.
(A)Only (I) (B)Only (II) (C)Only (III) (D)Both (I) and (III) (E)All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: Passage (I) explains the term regionalism at the national level and its importance in reference to the idea of nationalism while Passage (III) talks about the growing influence of regionalism over nationalism in the country as it can be inferred from the examples of different regional states provided in the paragraph. Thus both the statements infer the same theme, i.e. “Regionalism is a subset of nationalism.” Whereas passage (II) describes the regionalism in a broader sense as it talks about economic development by integrating economy of a developing nation with economies of other nations in the region to reap the benefits of the global economy. Thus the paragraph is not in context with the required inference. Hence (D) is the correct option.
9Q. The imperativeness of virtual safety is paramount in today's world.
(I). One of the most problematic elements of cybersecurity is the quickly and constantly evolving nature of security risks. The traditional approach has been to focus most resources on the most crucial system components and protect against the biggest known threats, which necessitated leaving some less important system components undefended and some less dangerous risks not protected against. Such an approach is insufficient in the current environment.
(II). Effective network security targets a variety of threats and stops them from entering or spreading on the network. Network security components include a) Anti-virus and antispyware, b) Firewall, to block unauthorized access to your network.
(III). A fixed-length hash value is computed as per the plain text that makes it impossible for the contents of the plain text to be recovered. Hash functions are also used by many operating systems to encrypt passwords.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: Passage (I) deals with the importance and the need for cybersecurity in mitigating the rising virtual threats in the current world. Similarly, passage (II) comes out with the effectiveness of cybersecurity mechanisms which is the need of the hour. It is to be noted that the inference so generated from both the paragraphs tally with the given statement. Whereas passage (III) talks about hash functions that can be used to encrypt secured passwords and thus it is totally out of context and in contrast to the required inference. Hence (C) is the correct choice.
10Q. Bad loans are crippling the Indian economy.
(I). One of the major factors that facilitated Kamco’s success was the existence of political will backed by a strong public interest in ensuring the right usage of public funds. India’s government to has demonstrated its political will for resolving the NPA crisis by putting in place a bankruptcy law. It must now follow up with reforms that address the imperfections in the market for distressed assets.
(II). In a bid to bring down the large pile of bad loans on its books, state-run lender Bank of India has put a large portfolio of nonperforming assets on sale. Remember, the bank's gross NPAs stood at over 13 percent of its book at the end of the June quarter.
(III). As India’s bankruptcy courts seek to resolve Rs 8 lakh crore worth of loan defaults, choking the banking system, it is clear that banks played a crucial role in the crisis by propping up ailing companies with fresh loans, even as firms struggled to repay old debts.
(A) Only (II) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: Passage (I) indicates that the problem of NPAs has already created unrest in the Indian economy which can well be inferred from the government’s decision to bring the bankruptcy law which further requires the aid in the form of better reforms in this sector to acknowledge the ailing economy of the country. Similarly, paragraph (III) have rightly pointed out to the disaster which is looming over the economy because of NPAs.
Direction (1-10): In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three statements. You have to find the statement(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.
1Q. Technology and its access is a critical factor for diversified agriculture.
(I). Any industry grows when it adapts to a competitive environment. If farmers get market signals from the market about upcoming trends of demands of consumers, total supply in the economy, new technologies, export opportunities or import vulnerabilities, they will find out more profitable crops, technologies and will keenly adapt. Present system creates a glut in the market of particular crops.
(II). The introduction of Agriculture Produce and Livestock Marketing Act (APML) 2017 may free both farmers and consumers from the core problem of price differences in different regions over different products. Higher market connectivity and free licensing mechanisms may prove to be highly responsive. Support of digital market tools like e-NAM (electronic national agriculture market) has though given some relief already.
(III). One of the biggest roadblocks to the growth of Indian agriculture is the low levels of yields. The predominant causes of low productivity are poor access to irrigation facilities; use of low-quality seeds, low adoption of improved technology and lack of knowledge dissemination on improved agricultural practices. The challenge of small landholding size impacts diversification indices negatively.
(A) Only (II) (B) Both (I) and (II) (C) Both (II) and (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: All three paragraphs explain the problems that the Indian farmers are facing today along with the remedial measures that may help in diversifying the agricultural sector, especially the use of technology in agriculture can bring a revolution that would accelerate its growth. Thus all these factors comply with the required inference i.e. “Technology and its access is a critical factor for diversified agriculture.” Hence (E) is the correct option.
2Q. Sports injury may cause damage to a child's mental growth.
(I). Many papers have shown that all it takes for your child to suffer brain damage is just one concussion. But before your son suffers a concussion, there must have been hundreds if not thousands of sub-concussions while playing various sports. The damage is permanent because the brain does not have any ability to regenerate itself.
(II). Concussions and TBI do real damage to the brain. Concussions and TBI occur when the brain suddenly shifts within the skull — usually as the result of a sudden blow, jolt or change of direction (e.g., whiplash). A football tackle, being hit with a baseball or softball, heading a soccer ball or tripping and falling are just a few of the athletic scenarios that can result in TBI.
(III). Some experts warn parents that there could be potential dangers to having children specialize in one sport year-round at a young age because of the physical toll it can take on a young athlete’s body before he or she has matured.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: Passage (I) focuses on possible injuries that a child may suffer in sports, more specifically the brain damage that can cause severe mental disabilities and hamper one’s growth. Similarly, passage (II) describes the effects of concussions and TBI that can be fatal to one’s growth both physically and mentally. Thus both these paragraphs generate the same inference i.e. “Sports injury may cause damage to a child's mental growth.” Whereas, passage (III) talks about the same issue but it is to be noted that it focuses only on the physical strain that a child’s body undergoes before he/she attains maturity. Hence (C) is the correct option.
3Q. The downward trend is ascribed to the failure of neoliberal policy.
(I). The FRBM Act effectively tied the hands of the government and has since its passage resulted in a decline in the fiscal deficit to GDP ratio to 3.5 percent in 2016-17. Since this occurred in a period when the government sought to move to an investor-friendly tax regime, which capped and even reduced the tax-to-GDP ratio, a consequence has been curbs on spending that had an overall deflationary impact on the economy.
(II). The Indian economy faces “serious downside risks” as the government’s demonetization drive, implementation of the goods and services tax (GST) and corporate deleveraging could accelerate a slowdown and make recovery difficult, the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, or UNCTAD, said in its Trade and Development Report 2017.
(III). This year's overall growth rate promises to be the worst in the last four years. At least one reason for this is the demonetization exercise last November which probably lopped off about one percent from the overall growth rate. It is tempting to jump to the conclusion that demonetization - surely amongst the worst policy decisions in recent times - has been solely responsible for the rather dismal performance and also played an important role in slowing down the economy.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II), and (III)

Explanation: The FRBM Act mentioned in paragraph 1 is about the Fiscal Responsibility and Budget Management (FRBM) Act enacted in 2003. The paragraph is more about the failure associated with neo-liberalism which resulted in an overall deflationary impact on the economy. The term “neo-liberalism” refers to a freeing of the economy by eliminating regulations and barriers that restrict what actors can do and transfers control of economic factors to the private sector from the public sector. Neoliberal policies aim for a laissez-faire approach to economic development. Thus the given inference can be generated from this paragraph. However, the other two paragraphs have got similar perspectives citing demonetization drive and other recent economic decisions to be the reasons behind the downward trend of the Indian economy. It is to be noted that these decisions do not affirm to the neo-liberal policy failure and thus cannot be connected to the given inference. Hence (A) is the correct option.
4Q. The education system in India should be autonomous.
(I). Insights from the report showed that while education is one of the most funded causes in India, few models have achieved scale, and quality remains a pressing issue. Holistic development is not given due attention and as such, access to education has not been equitable, and teacher shortages have impeded quality education delivery. To remedy these gaps, the Report observes the critical need for relevant curriculum design, leadership development, and ecosystem interventions that will go a long way in driving the quality and sustainability of the education sector.
(II). India’s vision of being a world leader in the 21st century is unlikely to be realized without an education system that keeps abreast with the needs of our future citizens. There is a strong case for public-private partnerships in education which will unleash the true potential of Indian citizens in a competitive climate. Clear guidelines and an audit and accountability mechanism are necessary for such an endeavor to succeed.
(III). Education is now a business activity devoted to immediate profits instead of long term benefits to society and rather than leave it to institutions as a mere suggestion (which would probably not be taken) the state could stipulate at least 100 hours of compulsory film viewing per annum for each school/college up to a certain level while also providing a large selection of films to pick from. The nation needs to have an educational programme of its own to create useful citizens and cannot leave this to private initiatives.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II), and (III)

Explanation: A passage I bring out the loopholes in our education system along with the need for remedies to sustain the deliverance in the education sector which is the need of the hour. Paragraph II states that our education system needs to move alongside the needs of our future citizens to fulfill the vision of being a world leader in the 21st century. Similarly, paragraph 3 talks about the need for proper reforms in the education system to create useful citizens. Thus all the three paragraphs direct to the given inference, “Education system in India should be autonomous.” It is to be noted that the word “autonomous” in this case refers to “self-sufficient or self-governing.” Hence (E) is the correct option.
5Q. Conservation should not be considered a drag on development.
(I). The tiger population in countries where the big cat occurs had a chequered existence. Although assiduously conserved, tiger populations in some of the range countries are awfully precarious; their numbers lie around the presumed ecological thresholds as far as their viability is concerned. The world has already lost three of the nine subspecies of this charismatic species, further restricting its world population genetically to only six subspecies or geographical variations.
(II). Tiger conservation basically demands stringent protection laws, vast landscapes and a good prey base. While these demands may sound innocuous, they conflict with the country’s land-use planning for development, and as a result, conservation is sidelined in favor of more human-centered priorities.
(III). India lost 69 tigers in 2015 and 52 in 2016. While poaching did not claim all these tigers, it does remain a serious threat to the tiger population. Among the tiger conservation practices, protection and intelligence gathering should be accorded priority and made more professional.
(A) Only (II) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: Both the paragraphs I and III, talk about the need for conservation of tiger population and certain strict measures for the purpose. Both these articles fail to give any hint regarding the development process. Thus the given inference is untrue to both of them. In the case of paragraph II, it is mentioned that protection mechanisms to conserve the tiger population is the need of the hour, but it should not be considered a drag on development. It is particularly mentioned in the last sentence of the paragraph that conservation is sidelined in favor of more human-centered priorities which should not have been the case. Thus the given inference, “Conservation should not be considered a drag on development” can be generated from this paragraph. Hence (A) is the correct option.
6Q. ISRO's recent accomplishments pronounce the autarky of Indian space prowess.
(I). Success upon success has visited ISRO in the past several years. It successfully put into orbit its spacecraft around Mars in its first attempt on September 24, 2014. The spacecraft completed 1,000 earth days in its orbit on June 19, 2017, well beyond its designated mission life of six months. Its mission to the moon, Chandrayaan-1, was the first to discover the presence of water molecules on the lunar surface soil and rocks. Majority of the mission was financed by Isro's commercial arm antrix which generates a profit of more than 28 million dollars a year by launching various foreign satellites.
(II). The GSLV Mk III, part of the GSLV launchers, carried India's heaviest satellite, GSAT-19 weighing 3136 kg for 16.20 minutes, will continue to be an operating launch. This was the first such launch from India. Earlier, India used to ask foreign space organizations to launch heavy satellites/orbiters. With this development, India will now be able to save crores. The GSLV Mk-III will continue to be a launch vehicle in the future.
(III). A key focus area of ISRO is building reusable launch vehicles (RLVs). In fact, the RLV program crossed a milestone on May 23, 2016, with the launch and return of a winged RLV-TD in a scaled configuration that flew at hypersonic speed. On August 28, 2016, ISRO took the next steps towards reducing the cost of access to space when a modified two-stage vehicle developed by the VSSC (Kerala, India) used air-breathing propulsion in its scramjet engine.
(A) Only (II) (B) Both (I) and (II) (C) Both (II) and (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: All three paragraphs mark the achievements of ISRO’s space programs over the last few years. These successes proclaim the self-sufficiency of Indian space agency as it is now independent enough to take bigger challenges in times to come. Thus all three passages agree to the given inference, “ISRO's recent accomplishments pronounce the autarky of Indian space prowess.” Hence (E) is the correct option.
7Q. Most NGOs in India lack leaders to succeed in Current Management.
(I). NGOs lack a foundational, leadership development culture and often do not have a shared understanding of what this should look like. Pushed in part by donors to focus almost exclusively on delivering programs, NGOs do not emphasize talent development and often shortchange themselves by under-investing in people.
(II). For the not-for-profit sector to play a far larger role in narrowing the social development deficit in India, prioritizing and investing in developing leaders needs to be a concerted effort from all sector stakeholders—NGO leaders, funders, and intermediaries.
(III). If India’s NGOs are to make real strides toward ambitious goals such as providing equitable healthcare, ensuring high-quality education for children, or providing access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation, they will have to confront the unassailable fact that exceptional organizations rely on exceptional leaders—and they need to grow more of them.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All (I), (II) and (III)

Explanation: All three paragraphs are based on a common theme. All the three articles express the need of building leadership development culture in the not-for-profit sector. This infers that to achieve the bigger goals that NGOs in India perceive, they need to work hard to develop exceptional leaders that they lack in current management. Hence all three generate the same inference, “Most NGOs in India lack leaders to succeed Current Management.”
8Q. India owes its present economic progress to LPG reforms.
(I). India’s annual average growth rate from 1990 – 2010 has been 6.6 % which is almost double than the pre-reforms era. GDP growth rate surpassed 5% mark in the early 1980s. This made the impact of 1990’s reforms on growth unclear. Some believe that 1980’s reforms were a precursor to LPG reforms. Other things apart, it is clear that 1980 reforms led to the crash of the economy in 1991, which was remedied by LPG reforms which were quite more comprehensive.
(II). The fruits of LPG’s reforms of 1990 have reached their peak in 2007 when India recorded its highest GDP growth rate of 9%. With this, India became the second fastest growing major economy in the world, next only to China. There has been significant debate, however, around liberalization as an inclusive economic growth strategy. Since 1992, income inequality has deepened in India. Whereas consumption is among the poorest staying stable while the wealthiest generate consumption growth.
(III). The LPG reforms were aimed at ending the license-permit raj by decreasing government intervention in the business, thereby pushing economic growth through reforms. India’s GDP stood at Rs 5,86,212 crore in 1991. About 25 years later, it stands at Rs 1,35,76,086 crore, up 2216 percent. In dollar terms, India’s GDP crossed the \$2 trillion mark in 2015-16. Currently, the country is ranked ninth in the world in terms of nominal GDP. India is tipped to be the second largest economy in the world by 2050.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: Study the first and the last sentences of the paragraph (I), it is quite evident that India’s LPG reforms in 1991 gave the much-needed boost to its economy which paid the dividends comprehensively and it could well be judged by the comparatively better GDP in the last two decades or so. Thus the paragraph agrees with the required inference. Similarly, paragraph (II) deals with the achievements of LPG reforms which resulted in accelerating India’s growth rate leading it to become the second fastest growing major economy in the world. Thus it also contributes to the required inference. In the case of the paragraph (III), there is a direct comparison in GDP after the reforms. Hence all the three paragraphs come out with the same inference, “India owes its present economic progress to LPG reforms.”
9Q. Strong unified actions are an important protection against child labor.
(I). Following the ratification of the Optional Protocol on the involvement of children in armed conflict in 2001, Guinea had taken steps to prohibit the recruitment of persons under the age of 18 and their direct involvement in armed conflict. The provisions of the Children's Code protected and afforded all possible guarantees to refugee children affected by armed conflict. The provisions of the Optional Protocol had been taken into account both in the Constitution and in the Child Code Act.
(II). Since 2015, Pact and Microsoft have been working together to address the issue through the Children out of Mining pilot project in Katanga. The project uses interventions that are deeply embedded in communities and local institutions to address the economic and social root causes that lead to child labor in mining. In mines where the project has been active, Pact has found a reduction in child labor of between 77 to 97 percent, with variation influenced by seasonal factors and the influx of new conflict-displaced families, among others.
(III). In 2001 factory monitors confirmed illegal union-busting and other violations—including employment of 13-15-year-old children—at a Mexican factory sewing clothing with university logos for Nike and other U.S. companies. Thousands of American students, workers, and consumers wrote letters to corporate CEOs protesting worker treatment. The international solidarity campaign helped factory workers overcome violence, intimidation, and mass firings when they tried to organize, and after months of struggle, workers won an independent union.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: Passage (I) leaves an inference which partly agrees with the given one. The mention of “strong unified actions” cannot be derived from the first paragraph as the actions had been considered based on the Optional Protocol. Moreover, it is more about the children affected by armed conflict. Thus the given inference cannot be derived from the paragraph (I). Paragraphs (II) and (III) indicate the presence of strong unified actions against child labor. Paragraph (II) shows the joint pilot project of Pact and Microsoft to eradicate child labor from mining and the positive result thereof. Similarly, paragraph (III) shows the unified actions by thousands of American students, workers, and consumers to help the children working in factories in overcoming violence, intimidation, etc. Hence both the paragraphs agree with the required inference, “Strong unified actions are an important protection against child labor.”
10Q. Electrification, in contemporary times, is a basic human necessity.
(I). The Saubhagya scheme will help India, the world’s third-largest energy consumer after the US and China, to help meet its global climate change commitments as electricity will substitute kerosene for lighting purposes. Lighting, in turn, will also help in improving education, health, connectivity with the multiplier effect of increased economic activities and job creation.
(II). After launching the Pradhan Mantri Sahaj Bijli Har Ghar Yojana for universalizing electricity access, the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government is readying a raft of power sector structural reforms including legal provisions to drive electricity demand, promoting retail competition and tariff slab rationalization to drive manufacturing.
(III). Despite the government’s aggressive village electrification programme, the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana launched in July 2015, under which 78% of 18,000 villages have been electrified, it was realized that the problem of electricity ‘access’ wasn’t resolved. A village is declared to be electrified if 10% of the households are given electricity along with public places such as schools, panchayat office, health centers, dispensaries, and community centers.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: At the very outset, we need to understand the meaning of the given inference. The inference suggests that in today’s world, electrification is a basic human necessity. Now we need to be specific about “basic human necessity” which infers how electrification would cater to our needs in bringing about a change in the existing condition. Among the three paragraphs, paragraph (I) provides a better explanation that could be referred from the last sentence of it. However, paragraphs (II) and (III) are out of the context. Paragraph (II) talks about the structural reforms in the power sector which would promote more electricity generation to meet up the required needs. Thus there is no mention of basic human necessity in the paragraph which marks its elimination. Similarly, paragraph (III) deals with the failure of the government’s electrification program, the Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gram Jyoti Yojana launched in July 2015. Hence only paragraph (I) agrees with the given inference, “Electrification, in contemporary times, is a basic human necessity.”
Direction (1-7): In each of the given questions an inference is given in bold which is then followed by three statements. You have to find the statement(s) from where it is inferred. Choose the option with the best possible outcome as your choice.
1Q. Climate change has definitely altered our environmental existence.
(I). Research studies across the world have shown that climate change may have negative health effects. A rise in heat-related illnesses and deaths, increased precipitation, floods and droughts are costing lives. With climate change, there is an increase in transmission and spread of infectious diseases due to changes in the distribution of water-borne, food-borne and vector-borne diseases, experts say.
(II). There are signs that climate change can influence hurricanes in several different ways. However, these signals are inconclusive due to our inadequate understanding of how hurricanes interact with the environment. Evidence of the environment’s role on hurricane development has been noted since the early 1950s, yet a major milestone was achieved by Kerry Emanuel at MIT in his studies of hurricane dynamics in the late 1980s.
(III). The world has warmed more slowly than had been forecast by computer models, which were “on the hot side” and overstated the impact of emissions, a new study has found. Its projections suggest that the world has a better chance than previously claimed of meeting the goal set by the Paris agreement on climate change to limit warming to 1.5C above preindustrial levels.
(A) Only (I) (B) Both (I) and (II) (C) Both (II) and (III) (D) Both (I) and (II) (E) All of the above

Explanation: Read the inference carefully, it is to be noted that the inference is more about the effects of climate change on “our environmental existence.” The term “our” here is more specific and refers to the adverse impacts of climate change on the human environment. After going through all the three paragraphs, it can be easily inferred that paragraph (I) covers all those impacts of climate change on human environment that are dreadful to its existence. However, paragraphs (II) and (III) are out of the context as both of them miss the mentioning of the term “our” i.e. they fail to connect with the impacts on the human environment. Thus they do not lead to the given inference. Hence only paragraph (I) agrees with the required inference, “Climate change has definitely altered our environmental existence.”
2Q. The current state of nuclear arsenals around the world is outside the realm of serious discussion.
(I). There is no doubt that South Korea has enough money and technical expertise to go nuclear, but there is less certainty in its ability to overcome the types of political obstacles blocking that goal. South Korea is a democracy, much dependent on foreign trade -- and this makes the nuclear option difficult to realize.
(II). According to the State Department’s most recent status report on the treaty, Russia currently has 1,765 weapons at the ready compared to the United States’ 1,411. The START treaty continued a bi-partisan international effort to reduce the number of nuclear weapons that was started by President Ronald Reagan after the Cold War.
(III). If North Korea seeks to prove that it can deliver a nuclear weapon effectively, the country's next test could carry an actual warhead. But such a test—or even the suggestion of such a test—could push the US and its allies Japan and South Korea into attempting to shoot down the next launch. That is if the test fits into the envelope of existing missile defenses—and the risks of a successful (or even failed) test outweigh the risks of trying to shoot it down.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) None of the above (E) All of the above

Explanation: The given inference requires a thorough understanding, it needs to be noted that the inference is referring to a serious discussion on the current state of nuclear arms. Among the three given paragraphs, none of them derives the required inference as all three of them have different issues related to nuclear warheads. Moreover, it is very difficult to generate any idea related to the serious discussion on such an important topic. Hence (D) is the correct option.
3Q. The Communist society is more or less the prerequisite of Marx’s dogmas.
(I). The Communist ideology is derived, on the one hand, from the penetrating insights of Karl Marx on the contradictions of Victorian capitalism and, on the other, from the violent determination of Leninist regimes to impose their version of utopia on feudal societies.
(II). Marx’s vision of communist society is remarkably (and perhaps intentionally) vague. Unlike earlier “utopian socialists,” whom Marx and Engels derided as unscientific and impractical—including Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, and Robert Owen—Marx did not produce detailed blueprints for a future society. Some features that he did describe, such as free education for all and a graduated income tax, are now commonplace.
(III). The Russian Revolution in 1917 (exactly 100 years ago), was highly driven by the communist ideology. This led to the formation of the USSR which was primarily an ideology-driven state, the ideology being Marxism-Leninism. The reason why Marx and his works left such a deep impact on the masses was that Marx scientifically argued how a section of people was getting richer at the expense of a much larger poor population.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: Read the paragraph (I) carefully, it is clearly mentioned that the Communist ideology is derived on the backdrop of precepts from Karl Marx and Leninist regimes. Thus it agrees with the inference so generated. In the case of paragraph (II), there is a contradicting belief stating Marx’s vision of communist society is vague and the certain features that he described are ordinary. Thus the given paragraph doesn’t follow the inference. In the paragraph (III), the example of the Russian Revolution in 1917 which was highly driven by the communist ideology marks a valid contribution from Karl Marx and his unprecedented dogmas. Thus it also agrees with the given inference. Hence both the paragraphs (I) and (III) derive the similar inference, “The Communist society is more or less the prerequisite of Marx’s dogmas.”
4Q. China’s rise as a draconian superpower may create bipolar disorder in international relations.
(I). China’s rise with an authoritarian regime has led to the ‘war with China’ theme propelling the American academic discourse. If only China were a democracy of some kind, the arguments of ‘democratic peace theory (that is, democracies do not fight)would have diluted the war-mongering theories.
(II). The consequences of an authoritarian China are already visible in its foreign policy behavior and wider international relations. The Chinese leadership is promoting nationalism as a diversionary tactic inducing aggressive posture in foreign policy behavior, particularly towards Japan, and to some extent, the US.
(III). The rise of China’s economic influence in the region, paired with diminished U.S. criticism on human-rights issues, has helped pave the way for a hardline agenda among regional governments, who also now stand to benefit from playing two of the world’s major superpowers off each other.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: The passage (1) depicts the similar theme that China’s rise as an authoritarian regime may create a disorder among different nations. The mention of “war-mongering theories” describes the possibility of an unstable pattern of peaceful relations. In the case of paragraph (II), China’s aggressive foreign policy behavior towards Japan and the US indicates the possible hot and cold relations between the two countries respectively. Thus the inference so generated makes a valid proof to this passage. Similarly, the paragraph (III) mentions the impact of economic domination of China that has led to some relief to regional governments. The given paragraph also indicates that there is a presence of an unstable relation of China with other countries. Hence all the three paragraphs derive the same inference, “China’s rise as a draconian superpower may create bipolar disorder in international relations.”
5Q. A wealth of linguistic richness exists outside of what is called the official languages of India.
(I). Uttarakhand is home to Hindi and many Pahari languages like Garhwali, Kumaoni, and Jaunsari. Sanskrit has been given the status of second official language in the state. But besides these languages, many Tibeto-Burman languages are also spoken in this region, including Bhoti, Jad, Rangkas, Darmiya, Byangsi, and Chaudangsi.
(II). There is proof of the intermixing of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan languages through the pockets of Dravidian-based languages on remote areas of Pakistan and interspersed areas of North India. In addition, there is a whole science regarding the tonal and cultural expression within the regional languages that are quite standard across India. Thus this process creates languages which deviate from its original structure.
(III). Among the most persistent myths about languages in India is that Sanskrit is the ancestor of all Indian languages. This is as stubborn a myth as the other myth about Hindi being India’s national language. (It isn’t. The constitutional status of Hindi is that of an “official” language, along with English.)
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (III) (C) Both (I) and (II) (D) Both (II) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: Examine the inference carefully, it implies that the languages, besides officially considered ones describe the linguistic richness of our country. Among these three passages, paragraphs (I) and (II) describe the different languages being spoken in the state of Uttarakhand and North India and their importance in creating vast linguistic diversity. Thus both the paragraphs generate the same inference. However, in the case of the paragraph (III), there is a mention of myths related to the official language of the country. Thus it doesn’t agree with the given inference. Hence both the paragraphs (I) and (II) derive the similar inference, “A wealth of linguistic richness exists outside of what is called the official languages of India.”
6Q. The Indian policies entail a greater effort in ensuring a smooth and rational business environment.
(I). In order to undertake effective policies to improve the business environment in India, we must strive to comprehend what causes it to be relatively good in some situations and poor in others. The NITI Aayog-IDFC study throws light on some of the broad trends in the country’s business environment but fails to provide a deeper understanding of its causes due to the lack of a conceptual framework to analyze the data.
(II). The Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP) has been focused on improving policies and guidelines for doing business in India. The emphasis has been mainly to rationalize and simplify the existing rules, along with introducing technology for making governance more effective and efficient. A prominent change had been online availability of applying for Industrial License and Industrial Entrepreneur Memorandum 24*7.
(III). The pace of development has been impressive in the last few years, Bulcke said lauding the government for improvement in India's ranking in World Bank's report on the ease of doing business. India has jumped 30 places to rank 100th in the World Bank's 'ease of doing business' ranking, sending the jubilant government to vow to continue reforms that will help the country break into top 50 in coming years.
(A) Only (I) (B) Both (I) and (II) (C) Both (II) and (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: There are clear indications in the paragraphs (I) and (II) that India needs to work towards improving its business environment through various extensive policies and bringing new changes and reforms in the existing mechanisms. Thus they infer similar meanings. But in the case of paragraph (III), it infers a different meaning. It is more about the achievement in the field of business in the country and a need to maintain such progress in the future. Hence both the paragraphs (I) and (II) agree with the given inference, “The Indian policies entail a greater effort in ensuring smooth and rational business environment.”
7Q. Artificial Intelligence will be the growth driver of economic transformation.
(I). But what about Artificial Intelligence? Many jobs involving routine (and thus codifiable) tasks have been eliminated: Banking transactions are digitized, cheques are processed by optical readers, call centers use software to shorten the conversations between customer and employee, or even replace humans with bots. This has resulted in increased efficiency.
(II). Some humans may hope to become immortal parts of these ecologies through brain scans and "mind uploads" into virtual realities or robots, a physically plausible idea discussed in fiction since the 1960s. However, to compete in rapidly evolving AI ecologies, uploaded human minds will eventually have to change beyond recognition, becoming something very different in the process.
(III). Humanity has, arguably, invested more faith – a belief based on things we cannot know or do not understand – in artificial intelligence than any other concept in recent memory. When computers teach themselves to create better algorithms than the humans who created them – we’re seeing things happen that even the developers themselves can’t fully explain.
(A) Only (I) (B) Only (II) (C) Only (III) (D) Both (I) and (III) (E) All of the above

Explanation: The given inference specifically mentions the role of Artificial Intelligence in the economic transformation. If we study these three paragraphs carefully, we will be able to infer that only paragraph (I) can be related to the economy as it describes the changes that we have seen in our economic world with the evolvement of Artificial Intelligence and its subsequent implementation in the system. Thus the paragraph agrees with the inference so generated. However, the other two paragraphs are out of the context. They are moving more towards the ifs and buts of Artificial Intelligence. There is a clear absence of discussion related to the economic transformation in the two paragraphs. Thus neither of them follows the given inference. Hence, only paragraph (I) expresses the correct inference, “Artificial Intelligence will be the growth driver of economic transformation.”
TYPE-B
Directions (1-2): Read the following passage and then answer the question that follows.
1Q. Two recent World Bank studies on India's rapidly depleting water resources have caused quite a stir. More interesting is how water seems to have become the new focus area for the Bank's assistance: at \$3.2 billion in 2005-08 from a mere \$700 million in 1999-04. Within water also, more money is going to rural water, large hydropower projects, and water resource management in poorer states. Which of the following statements generates the most appropriate inference of the above paragraph?
(A). The World Bank assistance to India for developing water resources has increased more than 4 times for 2005-08 as compared to the prior period. (B). India's water resources are depleting. (C). Poorer states of India require a larger fund for water resource management projects such as rural water, large hydropower projects. (D). The two World Bank studies on India have caused a stir. (E). Water conservation and water management processes have stirred the greater demand in the allocation of the fund in the recent past.