: Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions that follow.
Prepare for the “new abnormal
”. That was what California Governor Jerry Brown told reporters last month, commenting on the deadly wildfires that have plagued the state this year. He’s right. California’s latest crisis builds on years of record-breaking droughts and heatwaves. The rest of the world, too, has had more than its fair share of extreme weather in 2018. The Lancet Countdown on health and climate change announced last week that 157 million more people were exposed to heatwave events in 2017, compared with 2000. Such environmental disasters will only intensify. Governments, rightly, want to know what to do. Yet the climate-science community is struggling to offer useful answers.
In October 2018, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report setting out why we must stop global warming at 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, and how to do so. If the planet warms by 2 °C — the widely touted temperature limit in the 2015 Paris climate agreement — twice as many people will face water scarcity than if warming is limited to 1.5 °C. That extra warming will also expose more than 1.5 billion people to deadly heat extremes, and hundreds of millions of individuals to vector-borne diseases such as malaria, among other harms.
But the latest IPCC special report underplays another alarming fact: global warming is accelerating. Three trends — rising emissions, declining air pollution, and natural climate cycles — will combine over the next 20 years to make climate change faster and more furious than anticipated. In our view, there’s a good chance that we could breach the 1.5 °C level by 2030, not by 2040 as projected in the special report (see ‘Accelerated warming’). The climate-modeling community has not grappled enough with the rapid changes that policymakers care most about, preferring to focus on longer-term trends and equilibria.
Q1. In what reference has the California Governor used the phrase “new abnormal” in the above passage?
A. In context to extreme weather conditions due to record-breaking years of heatwaves and droughts.
B. In context to cloud burst and excessive floods.
C. In context to rising poverty.
D. In context to deadly wildfires that have plagued the state.
E. Both A and D
According to the first paragraph of the passage, both options A and D are correct.
Q2. What were the two main points stated out in the report released by IPCC in October 2018?
A. Rising poverty and economic crisis
B. Resource allocation problem and how to overcome it.
C. Why to stop global warming at 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels and how to stop it.
D. Why to stop using pesticides and fertilizers for farming and how to do so.
E. None of the above
Refer to the second paragraph of the passage.
Q3. What will be the harmful effects of extra warming according to the IPCC report?
A. It will expose more than 1.5 billion people to deadly heat extremes.
B. Expose hundreds of millions of individuals to vector-borne diseases such as malaria, among other harms.
C. Cause great damage to livestock
D. Both A and B
E. All of the above
Refer to the second paragraph of the passage. According to which both options A and B are correct.
Q4. Which of the following is SIMILAR to the word GRAPPLED given in BOLD in the passage?
‘Grappled’ means to try to overcome or deal; ‘confront’ means to stand or come in front of in order to make a deal or face a situation.
Q5. Which of the following is OPPOSITE to the word PLAGUED given in BOLD in the passage?
‘Plagued’ means to cause a lot of discomfort and problem specially health-wise.