English Knowledge - SPLessons


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SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
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shape Introduction

An Adjective is a word that clarifies a noun. Adjectives describe nouns by providing information about an object’s shape, color, size, age, origin and material etc.

shape Examples

Examples of Adjectives:
  • It’s a red chair.(Color)
  • It’s a wooden chair. (Material)
  • It’s a big chair. (Size)
  • It’s an English chair. (Origin)
  • It’s an old chair. (Age)
  • It’s a round chair. (Shape)

shape Uses

Adjectives tell us how much or how many of something we are talking about.
What things you want passed to you and what kind of something you want.
  • We need one square table.
  • Here one and square are modifying table.

When adjectives are used together, they should be separated by a comma or conjunction.
  • I looking for a cute, high-breed cat.
  • My new cat is cute and is of a high-breed.

shape Types

There are different types of adjectives based upon its effect on the noun and pronoun.
Descriptive adjective: Descriptive adjectives describe the nature and attribute of nouns and pronouns. They help us to know the characteristics of noun and pronoun by answering the question. Some of the descriptive adjectives are kind, large, bulky, thin, beautiful, ugly etc.
Example of descriptive adjective:
  • Rahul is a thin and handsome boy.
  • They have a large house.

Quantitative adjective: Quantitative adjective gives us an idea about amount of a noun or pronoun. Though, it doesn’t tell us the exact numbers or amount. Some of the quantitative adjectives are few, enough, all, great etc.
Examples of quantitative adjectives:
  • I have seen a few people having tea.
  • Many people have attended the party.

Numeral adjective: Numeral adjectives indicate the number of a noun and its place in the sentence. Numeral adjectives are further divided into three different parts such as
  1. Definite Numeral Adjective: As name suggests, definite numeral adjectives clearly tells us the exact number of nouns and its order.
    Examples of Definite Numerical Adjectives: One, two, three, four, twenty etc. are known as cardinals. First, second, third, fourth, tenth etc. are known as ordinals.
    • I saw four kids playing basketball.
    • He is studying in tenth standard.

  2. Indefinite Numeral Adjective: Unlike, definite numeral adjectives, they do not tell us the exact numerical amount of a noun. It just gives us an idea of that amount.
    Example of indefinite numeral adjective: Some, many, few, several etc.
    • Only few students were present in the class yesterday.

  3. Distributive Numeral Adjective: A singular noun and a singular verb is lead by distributive numeral adjectives Sometimes there is use of a plural noun and a singular verb by using either of, every one of, neither of etc.
    Examples of distributive numeral adjective: Either, neither, each, every, another, other, etc.
    • Each of hand has four fingers and one thumb.
    • Neither method is correct.
    • Either of the method is wrong.
    • Every child deserves a good education.

Demonstrative adjectives: Demonstrative adjectives indicate a specific noun or a pronoun by using adjectives such as these, that, those, this etc.
Example of Demonstrative adjectives:
  • That is my bag.
  • I like this dress very much.
  • I like playing these games.
  • Those flowers are lovely.

Interrogative adjectives: Interrogative adjectives are used to ask questions. These are used before a noun in the sentence. Some of interrogative adjectives are where, which, whose, and what etc.
Examples of interrogative adjectives:
  • Whose bag is this?
  • Which is your favorite movie star?
  • What is your name?
  • Where are you going?

Coordinate adjectives: Coordinate adjectives comes in a series in order to change or modify the same noun. These adjectives are separated by using commas and they always come before final adjective. They can be re-arranged in a series.
Example of coordinate adjectives: Nice, rainy day, dark, dull etc.
  • She was a smart, beautiful, kind lady.
  • She was a beautiful, kind and gentle lady.

Non-coordinate adjectives: Non-coordinate adjectives are those which do not make any sense after inserting commas, or and in between. So, commas or and are not used to get the words separated and cannot be rearranged in a series.
Example of non-coordinate adjectives:
  • I have two healthy active pet dogs. (this sentence is grammatically correct)
  • I have active two healthy pet dogs. (this sentence is grammatically incorrect)

Possessive adjective: Possessive adjectives are used to indicate the noun that belongs to someone. Some of possessive adjectives are My, your, his, her, their etc.
Examples of possessive adjective:
  • This is our class.
  • It is him.
  • Your dad is very nice.

shape Rules

Rules of Grammar While Using Adjective: Following rules of ordering adjectives helps us to be able to order adjectives in a meaningful sequence. Learning these rules of ordering objectives plays an important role in order to use number of different adjectives while drafting a sentence. It helps us to understand that which adjective to be write first and which one should be used in last. Usually we make sentence by adding only one adjective into the sentence but if you want more information about the noun and pronoun, you can add more than one adjectives into the sentence in proper order by following rules of ordering adjectives. Below we are going to discuss the rules of ordering the objectives.
Determiners: Adjectives like article, possessive, demonstrative, numerical, quantifier, and distributive adjectives should be placed first in a sentence.
  • I have two good. (the sentence is making sense and is grammatically correct.)
If we write this sentence by putting the quality adjective first to the quantity adjective, then this is what we see:
  • I have good two. (the sentence is making no sense and it is grammatically incorrect.)

Quantity, Number, and Opinion: The numerical adjective should always be used after adjectives same as articles, possessive, demonstrative and quantifiers.
  • I have two good pet dogs. (Here good is quality or opinion adjective which follows after the numerical adjective.)

Size: All the adjectives we have discussed above such as numerical, article, quality and opinion adjectives are followed by another adjective which describes the size of noun.
  • I have two good little pet dogs. ( here, little is the adjective describing the size of noun.)

Age: The above adjectives are followed by the adjective describing age of the noun. The above example provides us some information about dog’s age but doesn’t telling us the exact age. So, it needs a separate sentence to describe the age of noun.
  • I have two good little kids.
  • Or
  • I have two good little dogs. They are one and four.
  • Or
  • I have two good little school-going kids.

So, from the above examples we have learnt that we can show the age of noun in the sentence in many ways such as, by changing the noun (like kids, school-going) to reflect age or showing the age in separate sentence. Moreover, changing only the noun does not gives us a clear idea of age. Anyone can identify the age of the noun by reading the second sentence.
Shape: Different objects are used in order to identify the shape as circle, square, triangle, rectangle, etc. in order to describe the shape of the noun. If the noun is a person, we can describe their appearance.
  • I have two wooden new square tables. (The sentence is bit long, so we can put some attributes of noun in a separate sentence.

Color: Color adjectives can be added once we are done with shape adjective.
  • I have two wooden new square blue tables. (The sentence is bit long, so we can write creatively and put some attributes of noun in a separate sentence.

Such as:
  • I have two wooden new square blue tables. Both are new, square and blue in color.

Origin: To know the origin of the item, we need to find out the place where the item is purchased or manufactured by the use of adjectives.
  • I have two wooden new square blue Italian tables. (Here the sentence describes the heritage and manufacturing place of the item.)
  • I have two wooden new square blue tables from the South. (Here the sentence is bit unclear; it is just showing the place of purchase.)

Material: To provide complete detail of the item, we have to describe about the material it is made of such as rubber, plastic, steel, wood etc. But if we are discussing about a person, then we need to describe about their behavior.
  • I have one soft small rubber.
  • I have two sweet small energetic puppies.

Grammatical Modifier: Usually, nouns or other forms of speech are used to modify nouns by using special kind of adjectives known as grammatical modifiers. Grammatical modifiers are added in the end of a sentence. For example:
  • She has a small blue wooden pet house. (Here, pet is a grammatical modifier as it modifies the noun house. Grammatical modifier here telling us clearly that the house belongs to the pet, not to the human.)

shape Errors

Common Errors While Using Adjectives Here we are going to discuss some of the mistakes that we often make while using adjectives.
  • Incorrect: He is more healthier than his brother.
  • Correct: He is healthier than his brother.

Don’t use double comparatives. Adjectives usually make their comparatives by including –er. More is used by longer adjectives.
  • Incorrect: Dalhousie is further from Rajasthan than Chandigarh.
  • Correct: Dalhousie is farther from Rajasthan than Chandigarh.

Further means ‘extra’. When talking about distance, we use farther.
  • Incorrect: You have much dresses.
  • Correct: You have many dresses.
  • Incorrect: She has many things to do.
  • Correct: She has much things to do.

With uncountable nouns much is used and with countable nouns, many.
  • Incorrect: She is becoming fat and fat every day.
  • Correct: She is becoming fatter and fatter every day.

In such sentences, comparative form of adjective should be used.
  • Incorrect: Let us do nice something.
  • Correct: Let us do something nice.

The adjective usually follows expressions like somewhere.
  • Incorrect: I can’t afford that a luxurious car.
  • Correct: I can’t afford that luxurious a car.
Use the following formula: That + adjective + a/an + noun
  • Incorrect: let me see the last movie.
  • Correct: Let me see the latest movies.

In this, latest means the most recent and last means the prior one.
  • Incorrect: I have less pencils than you.
  • Correct: I have fewer pencils than you.

With uncountable nouns, less is used and with countable nouns fewer.
  • Incorrect: She wasted her all time.
  • Correct: She wasted all her time.

Quantifiers like all, both and half should be used prior to possessives.