English Knowledge - SPLessons
SPLessons 5 Steps, 3 Clicks
5 Steps - 3 Clicks



shape Introductions

Noun is a word which describes the name of a person, place, animal, thing or an idea.

Various examples of nouns are as follows.
Name Examples
A person:
  • My mother’s name is Anita.
  • Mahatma Gandhi fought for India’s independence.
A Place
  • Come over here.
  • My father works for a company in England.
An animal:
  • The dog barked at the stranger.
  • The name of the cat is Edward.
A thing:
  • Can you please buy me a bag?
  • Please sit properly on the chair.
An idea:
  • The theory of gravitation is a significant theory.
  • You should always follow the traffic rules.

shape Classification

Classification of Nouns: Different types of nouns are proper nouns, common nouns, concrete nouns, abstract nouns, compound nouns, collective nouns, compound nouns, countable nouns, uncountable nouns, singular nouns, plural nouns and possessive nouns.

1. Proper Nouns: A noun that is a name of a certain person, place or thing is called a Proper Noun. They always begin with a capital letter.
For example:
  • Asia is the largest continent.
  • Wednesday is a holiday.

2. Common Nouns: A noun that identifies with a group of people or things in general is called a Common Noun.
For example:
  • A group of boys is standing at the bus stop.
  • The countries near the equator have hot temperature.
There is a chain of mountains running from west to east.
3. Abstract Nouns: Nouns which refer to ideas, concepts, emotions, feelings are called abstract nouns. You cannot physically touch of feel the Abstract Nouns.
For example:
  • She has an incredible love for dogs.
  • The young girl received an award for her bravery.

4. Concrete Nouns: Nouns used for the things that can be seen, felt, touched, tasted, heard etc. are called concrete nouns. Different concrete nouns are countable, uncountable, common, collective and Proper Nouns.
For example:
  • Your muffler is made of fine wool.
  • Can you please pass me the pickles?

5. Collective Nouns: Nouns that make a reference of things or people as one unit are called Collective Nouns.
For example:
  • The band of musicians performed amazingly.
  • The audience clapped after the dance performance.

6. Countable Nouns: Nouns that can be counted are called Countable Nouns.
For example:
  • There are five books on the bookshelf.
  • I have ten new dresses for the occasion.

7. Uncountable Nouns: Nouns which cannot be counted easily are called Uncountable Nouns.
For example:
  • There was snow outside our school.
  • The wheat fell out of the sack.

8. Compounds Nouns: Nouns which are made up of two words are called Compound Nouns.
For example:
  • The daughter-in-law respects her new family members.
  • The sunlight entered the room from between the curtains.

9. Singular Nouns: Nouns that represent a single thing, person, place or an idea are called Singular Nouns.
For example:
  • I gifted her photo frame.
  • The monkey was in the backyard of the house.
  • He has bought a new pen for his mother.

10. Plural Nouns: Nouns that represent more than one thing, person, or an idea are called Plural Nouns.
For example:
  • There were six bottles in the box.
  • The children were playing with the kittens.

11. Possessive Nouns: Nouns that show ownership of a person of something are called Possessive Nouns.
For instance:
  • That is his pencil.
  • Her mom’s scooter was hit by a fast approaching scooter.
  • This bouquet of flowers belongs to the girl in the red dress.

shape Functions

Nouns are the most important part of the speech which is used in the sentences. They are very important and equally important are their functions.

The most important functions of nouns are as follows:
1. Subject of the Verb: All the sentences have subjects which tell the reader what the sentence is all about. The subject is a noun. So we can say that the foremost function of the noun is to work as a subject.
For example:
  • Michael threw the ball. So, Michael is the subject of the verb threw.
  • He is sleeping. He is the subject of the verb sleeping.

2. Direct or Indirect Object: Nouns can act like direct or indirect objects of the verbs. It receives action from the verb and is placed after the action word.
For example:
  • The ship was crossing the river. So in the sentence, the river is the object of the verb crossing.
  • My uncle gave me the chocolate. So in the sentence, me is the direct object, and chocolate is the indirect object of the verb gave.

3. Complement of the Verb: When a noun is placed after a linking verb or in the state of being a verb, then it serves as a Complement of the Verb. It receives no action from the verb.
For example:
  • The boy is a trader.
  • Tyson is the winner.

4. Object of Preposition: When a noun acts as an object of preposition in the sentence, it is placed after the Preposition in the Sentence.
For example:
  • I have to give the project report to the professor.
  • Let us go with Matt.
  • All the highlighted words coming after the prepositions are said to be object of preposition.

Descriptive of Another Noun: Sometimes in a sentence, when two nouns are put together in a sentence, former explaining the latter, these nouns can be called descriptive nouns.
For example:
  • The teacher, Mrs. Kohli was retired from the school. In this sentence, Mrs. Pike is giving meaning to the noun teacher.
  • Prem Sharma, as the president of the organization, has decided. In this sentence, the president adds meaning to Prem Sharma.

Above mentioned are the functions which a noun performs while being used in the sentences.

shape Rules & Tips

Rules and Tips While Using Nouns:
As simple as nouns may seem, there are certain rules that need to be followed for the use of nouns in sentences.
Rule 1: Some nouns always exist in plural forms. Thus‘s’ cannot be removed from them to make them singular words.
For example: tongs, scissors, trousers, troops, gallops.
  • I have bought a pair of earrings.
  • My mother uses tongs while making chapattis.

Rule 2: There are certain words that despite being in the plural form are treated like singular words. These words take the help of singular helping verbs.
For example: news, mathematics, athletics, politics, and physics, to name a few.
  • Athletics is a field chosen only by the few people.
  • Physics is a very boring subject.

Rule 3: There are certain words which seem plural in meaning but are singular in the form. They take the help of plural verb.
For example: cattle, infantry, children and police.
  • The cattle are grazing in the field.
  • The children are playing in the ground.

Rule 4: Uncountable nouns take the help of singular verbs. Uncountable nouns are always used as singular form.
For example: pottery, percentage, news, dirt, dust, traffic, music etc.
  • She has colored her hair red.
  • The scenery of Srinagar has captivated us.

Rule 5: There are few words that are treated the same irrespective of their singular or plural form.
For example: crew, family, team, jury, carp, aircraft, swine, counsel etc.
  • A sheep is sleeping.
  • Two sheep are sleeping.

Rule 6: If a definite numeral adjective is added before the noun, they will assume the singular form.
For example: pair, score, million, trillion, dozen etc.
  • She has five hundred rupees only.
  • Mr. Mehta donated two million rupees to the NGO.

Rule 7: If there is a preposition between two same nouns, then the noun should take the singular form.
For example:
  • Child after child was arriving.

Rule 8: There are few words which are used for male and female both. These are called dual genders. So words like his, him, he are to be used.
  • Every student was doing his own task individually.
  • The teacher must treat all his students equally.

Plural Noun Rules:

1. Add ‘S’ to make normal nouns plural.
For example:
  • Bat- Bats
  • Rat- Rats

2. To make a singular noun ending with ‘s’, ‘ss, ‘ch’, ’x’ or ‘z’ plural add ‘es’ to it.
For example:
  • Kiss- Kisses
  • Boss- Bosses

3. Some words that end with ‘s’ or ‘z’, require that the writer must double the ‘s’ or ‘z’ and include ‘es‘ to make it plural.
For example:
  • Quiz- Quizzes
  • Gas- Gasses

4. Words ending with ‘f’ or ‘fe’ must be changed to ‘ve’ before making them plural form.
For example:
  • Wolf- Wolves
  • Half- Halves

1. If a word ending with ‘y’ and the letter prior to 'y' is a consonant, then ‘ies’ should be added to make it plural.
For example:
  • Marry- Marries
  • Fancy- Fancies

2. If a word ends with 'y' and the letter prior to it is a vowel, then it can be made plural by adding ‘s’.
  • Portray- Portrays
  • Pray- Prays

3. If a word ends with ‘o’ add ‘es’ to make it plural.
For example:
  • Do- Does
  • Volcano- Volcanoes

4. If a word ends with ‘us’, it can be made plural by adding just ‘I’.
For example:
  • Syllabus- Syllabi
  • Bronchus- Bronchi

5. A word ending in ‘is’ can be made plural by adding ‘es’.
For example:
  • Parenthesis- Parentheses

6. If a word ends in ‘on’, it can be made plural by adding ‘a’ to it.
For example:
  • Phenomenon- Phenomena

7. Some words remain the same irrespective of singular or plural form.
For example:
  • Fish- Fish
  • Deer- Deer

Rules for Irregular Nouns:
There are no set rules for irregular nouns. So just memorize these for their usage.
  • Person- People
  • Foot-Feet

Hope you understood the topic and enjoy using nouns in your everyday life.