: Given below is a passage divided into XIV segments
. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow.
is the world’s fifth largest economy
, it contains many areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance, its entrepreneurs are innovation and agile, and despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world.
It thus seems patently unjust and __(A)
__ to British values that so many people are living in poverty. (II)
This is obvious (1)
to anyone who opens their eyes to see the deep (2)
growth in food banks and the queues waiting outside them, the people sleeping rough in the streets, the growth of homelessness, the sense of immense (3)
despair that leads even the Government to appoint a Minister for suicide prevention (4)
and civil society to report on levels of loneliness and isolation. (III)
And local __(B)
__, especially in England, which perform vital roles in providing a real social safety net have been gutted by a series of government policies. (IV)
Libraries have closed in record numbers, community and youth centers have been shrunk and are underfunded, public spaces and buildings including parks and recreation centers have been sold off. (V)
While the labor and housing markets provide the crucial __(C)
__, the focus of this report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. (VI)
The results? 14 million people, a fifth of the population, live in poverty. Four million of these are below the poverty line, and 1.5 million are __(5)
The widely respected Institute for Fiscal Studies predicts a 7% rise in child poverty between 2015 and 2022, and various __(E)
__ (resources) predict child poverty rates of as high as 40%. (VIII) For almost one in every two children to be poor in the twenty-first century Britain is not just a disgrace, but a social calamity and an economic disaster, all rolled into one. (IX)
The country’s most respected charitable groups, its leading think tanks, its parliamentary committees, independent authorities like the National Audit Office, and many others, have all drawn attention to the dramatic decline in the fortunes of the least well off in this country. (X)
But through it all, the state (1)
has remained determinedly (2)
in a government (3)
of denial while stubbornly (4)
resisting to acknowledge the situation. (XI)
Even while devolved __(F)__ in Scotland and Northern Ireland are frantically trying to devise ways to ‘mitigate’, or in other words counteract, at least the worst features of the Government’s benefits policy, Ministers insisted that all is well and running according to plan. (XII)
Some tweaks to basic policy have __(G)
__ been made, but there has been a determined resistance to change in response to the many problems. (XIII)
However, the good news is that/ many of the problems could readily be solved/ if the Government is to acknowledge the problems/ and consider some of the recommendations below. (XIV). The first sentence (I) of the passage has been divided into four parts in the given options. There may or may not be an error in one of the parts. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error then choose option (E)
, “No error” as your answer.
A. The UK is the world’s fifth largest economy, it contains
B. many areas of immense wealth, its capital is a leading centre of global finance,
C. its entrepreneurs are innovation and agile, and
D. despite the current political turmoil, it has a system of government that rightly remains the envy of much of the world
E. No error
: Option C
The error lies in the third part of the sentence. “Entrepreneurs” is a noun and signifies a group of people. People can be “innovative” and not “innovation”. Thus, option C is the correct answer.
2. Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (A) in the second segment (II) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful? Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
(i) _________ to popular myth, the majority of accidents are not caused by speeding or drunkenness.
(ii) The villagers expressed regret that their habitations lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities ________ to the government’s tall claims.
: Option B
3. The third segment (III) in the given passage has four words given in bold. Of these, the positions of two words may be incorrect and need to be exchanged to make the sentence correct. Find the two words which need to be exchanged.
- In the given question, we need to find a word which fits into all the three blanks. In the given passage, the sentence under concern is followed by one which appreciates the economy of UK.
- From the second sentence, it can be gathered that the situation of poverty is considered as unjust for a prosperous a nation like U.K..
- The word in the blank must signify that the condition is considered something with reference to the British values.
- Certainly, poverty will be considered as a blot on the legacy of the nation.
- Thus, “contrary”, which means “in contrast to” is the best fit word for the blank. “Complying” and “complementary” would convey a meaning opposite to what is required.
- The words given in the last two options will convey an appropriate sense. “Contrary” fits in both the blanks of the given two sentences. In the first, it means that what is usually believed with reference to accidents does not actually hold true.
- In the second sentence, it means that opposed to the government’s promises, the habitations of the villagers lacked road connectivity and other basic amenities.
: Option E
4. From the given options, choose the word that can fill the blank marked as (B) in segment IV as well the one marked as (F) in segment XII.
- “Deep” as well as “immense” are adjectives.
- In the given sentence, it must be assured that these adjectives modify the correct noun. Though the term “immense despair” may sound right, the term “deep growth” is incorrect.
- Thus, the positions of the two adjectives must be altered to make the sentence correct. “Immense growth” and “deep despair” are correct terms. So, option E is the correct answer.
: Option D
5. With respect to the context of the passage, which of the following can be inferred from the italicized sentence mentioned in the fifth segment (V) of the passage?
- In the given question, we must choose a word that can fill two blanks of the passages.
- Let’s look at the context of the first sentence. Here the word should be a noun which is modified by the adjective “local” and must be a body that performs vital roles in providing a real social safety net.
- Certainly, only “authorities” fits here. “Local settlements” is quite inappropriate here. In the blank marked as (F), the concerned noun is trying to devise ways counteract the worst features of the Government’s benefits policy. Thus, the word “authorities” fits here also.
- Hence, option D is the correct answer.
A. The closure of the various institutions of the society will gradually have an adverse effect on the physical health of the growing children.
B. Public welfare institutions have been shut down, thus causing a set back to the social health of the citizens.
C. In order to revive these institutions in the future, the government will have to invest a
lot of capital and promote schemes to encourage people for social participation.
D. The closure of the institutions indicates that Britain is undergoing economic crisis.
E. None of these
: Option B
6. Which of the following word given in the options should fill the blank marked as (C) in the sixth segment (VI) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful. Note that the word should also fill both the blanks of the following two sentences to make them contextually meaningful.
- Note that we have to draw an inference from the concerned sentence, while keeping the context of the passage in mind.
- The sentence preceding the concerned sentence states that local authorities in England, which perform vital roles in providing a real social safety net, have been removed by a series of government policies.
- This implies that the social fabric has been adversely affected by the removal of certain local authorities.
- The concerned sentence futher states how institutions that are necessary for the social and recreational growth of an individual, have been shut down.
- This implies that the course of action will adversely affect the social health of the people. Thus, option B is the correct answer.
- The statement mentioned in option A carries a very narrow sense and cannot be inferred from the sentence.
- Statement C is out of context as the passage puts forth the problem and does not discuss how the institutions can be revived.
- Statement D is also not an appropriate inference as the author does not intertwine the problem with an economic crisis, but sees it as a failure of the government.
(i) Settled into a ________ of wooded hills, was the little log cabin.
(ii) The conference begins this week against a _______ of unmitigated gloom.
E. Both A and B
: Option A
7. Which of the following phrases should fill the blank marked as (D) in the seventh segment (VII) of the passage, to make it grammatically and contextually meaningful?
- Backdrop- the setting or background for a scene, event, or situation; lie behind or beyond; serve as a background to Precursor- a person or thing that comes before another of the same kind, predecessor Profusion- an abundance or large quantity of something Let us look at the first sentence given above.
- It indicates that the hills acted as a part of the surrounding where the little log cabin was situated
- So, “background” can fit here the best.
- “Surrounding” is quite inappropriate here.
- The second sentence implies that the “unmitigated gloom” acts as the pretext, in reference with which the conference begins.
- The similar meaning is conveyed by segment VI of the passage.
- It implies that though the labour and housing markets provide a background to the issue, the focus of the report is on the contribution made by social security and related policies. Thus, option A is the correct answer.
A. destitute, unable to afford basic essentials
B. suffering poor, inaccessible to basic needs
C. Incapable of influencing the government
D. Struggling to move further down
E. Hit by unemployment
: Option A
8. In segment VIII of the passage, the blank marked as (F) is followed by a word given in bold. From, the given options, choose the word which should replace the word given in bold to make the sentence grammatically and contextually correct. If the given word suits the blank, mark option E, 'No correction required', as the answer.
- Part VII talks about the segments of the population that live in poverty or lie below the poverty line. So, the next part, which is joined by the coordinating conjunction “and” must give statistics with reference to poverty.
- This eliminates option C.
- Option A fits well while making the sentence grammatically and contextually correct.
- Option B is incorrect as the term “suffering poor” is incorrect.
- Option D is incorrect as one would not struggle to move further down (towards economic decline).
- E cannot fit the blank as “to be hit by unemployment” is not an appropriate term.
E. No correction required
: Option D
9. Segments IX and X have been italicised. Which of the following statement can come in between the two sentences to maintain the continuity of the paragraph?
- The concerned sentence talks about the statistical predictions made by the Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- The usage of “various”indicates that there are other actors responsible for the predictions. Had option C being in the plural form, it could have fit. Soothsayers are people who foresee the future.
- The word cannot be used in the blank as it carries an impractical connotation with it. “Columns” also does not fit the blank as we don’t know what columns are being talked about. Resources refers to the wealth that can be drawn on by a person or organization in order to function effectively. “Resources” cannot predict, but “sources” (authorities or informants) can.
- Thus, option D is the correct answer.
A. However, every cloud has a silver lining.
B. But the full picture of low-income well- being in the UK cannot be captured by statistics alone.
C. One must also not shy away from accepting the bitter truth that the annual exports have drastically declined.
D. But to get a clearer picture, one must further conduct statistical research.
E. This would tarnish the historical legacy carried by Britain, a country which once ruled the world.
: Option B
10. The eleventh segment (XI) in the given passage has four words given in bold. Of these, the positions of two words may be incorrect and need to be exchanged to make the sentence correct. Find the two words which need to be exchanged.
- The sentence in segment IX is followed by one which presents statistics with reference to the poverty in Britain.
- IX carries the idea forward by further stating statistics. However, sentence X shows some non- statistical factors, the decline of which have adversely affected the country.
- So, a sentence which directs the course of the context from statistical data to non- statistical data can act as a connector.
- The statement mentioned in option B succeeds to do that. Thus, it is the most appropriate answer.
- A is incorrect as the usage of “however” indicates that the following sentence must present a contrast to the sentence preceding it.
- Option C, by mentioning about “exports”, diverges from the context.
- D is incorrect as it indicates that the next sentence must further deal with statistical data.
- Option E, again disturbs the continuity of the sentence with reference to the context.
: Option B
11. Which of the following word should fill the blank marked as G in segment XIII to make it contextually correct and meaningful?
- The word “state” can mean a country as well as “condition”. Thus, “state” can fit at (1) and (3).
- However, the term “government of denial” is incorrect. Thus, the positions of “state” and “government” should be interchanged to make the sentence correct.
: Option E
12. The last sentence (XIV) of the passage has been divided into four parts in the given options. There may or may not be an error in one of the parts. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there is no error then choose option (E), “No error” as your answer.
- The sentence in segment XII implies that the ministers of the government are not very interested in addressing and resolving the problem. Also, their action has not been satisfactory enough. Thus, the tweaks in the policies must have been made reluctantly or unwillingly.
- Thus, option E is the correct answer.
- Options B, C and D would convey the opposite meaning.
- Option A is irrelevant here.
A. However, the good news is that
B. many of the problems could readily be solved
C. if the Government is to acknowledge the problems
D. and consider some of the recommendations below
E. No error
: Option C
- The error is in the third part of the sentence.
- In the given sentence, ‘if’ has been used in the sentence to indicate a condition which has never existed and seemingly will never exist.
- In such cases, we use the plural form of the auxiliary verb, which must also be in the past tense. Thus, “were” should replace “is”.