Rules for changing direct into indirect speech.
If in direct speech one can discover say/says or will say then DO NOT CHANGE THE TENSE
that discover inside the quotes.
- She says,” I was a fool then”
- She says he was a fool then.
If in direct speech the words inside the quotes discuss a well known fact or constant activity then RULE ONE
is taken after or at the end of the day the strained inside the quotes is not changed by any means.
- John said,” The sun rises in the east”
- John said the sun rises in the east.
In the event that there is "said
" in the direct speech then the tense of the words inside quotes is changed to the past tense.
- She said,” I killed an ant”
- She said she had killed an ant.
Words indicating nearness are changed into words showing distance.
- Here - there
- tomorrow - the next or following day
- This - that
- yesterday - the previous day
- These - those
- the next week - the following week
- Today - that day
- now - then
- Tonight - that night
The following changes in the tense need to be considered.
- Is or am - was
- Are - were
- Is (sleeping) - was (sleeping)
- Are (sleeping) - were (sleeping)
- Has or have killed - had killed
- Was or were laughing - had been laughing
- Can - could
- will - would
- shall - should
- may - might
- Did - had done