# Deriving Conclusions from Passages

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# Deriving Conclusions from Passages

### Description

In deriving conclusions from passages of logical deductions, the questions comprises of a brief description/passage (usually a report containing certain information in regards to some social or economical problem) trailed by specific derivations in light of it. The candidate is required to break down the content of the section or handle the attractive truths from it. At that point, applicant needs to consider each of the given impacts with regards to the given entry, decide on its level of truth or falsity and after that pick the best option.

### Concept

Important points to be remembered while answering these questions:
• Conclusions can be directly or in a roundabout way induced from the statement/statements.
• The conclusion alone can be valid yet it doesn't give affirmation until the statement supports.
• There should not be any indefinite in logic.
Format of the problem: Directions: Read the given passage and examine each inference given in the context of passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark your answer as: a) If the inference is 'definitely true'. b) If the inference is 'probably true'. c) If the 'data provided is inadequate'. d) If the inference is 'probably false'. e) If the inference is 'definitely false'.

### Model Problems

Model 1: Passage: Acquirement of wheat is going all out in the north-western conditions of India. By June end, open organizations are prone to wind up with food grain supplies of around 40 to 42 million tons, the most noteworthy ever seen ever. This stock should be more than adequate to guarantee that the nation's "food security" is not endangered regardless of the fact that India confronts two continuous dry seasons. In any case, for some odd reason, while the granaries overflow, there is still widespread hunger in the nation even without a drought. The estimates of poverty are being debated, but broadly one-third of India seems to remain underfed. Also, this coexistence of grain surpluses with extensive scale hunger should make serious policy-marker think and examine the current policy blend with a perspective to guarantee quicker monetary development and reduction in poverty. 1. The policy-makers in India are unconscious of common hunger. 2. The distribution of food grains to the masses has remained an issue range for India. 3. India's food grains stock has been satisfactory in the course of recent years. 4. The policy of India should be patched up to decrease the extent of poverty in the nation. Directions: Read the given passage and examine each inference given above in the context of passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark your answer as: a) If the inference is 'definitely true'. b) If the inference is 'probably true'. c) If the 'data provided is inadequate'. d) If the inference is 'probably false'. e) If the inference is 'definitely false'. Solution:
1. The statement 'while the granaries overflow, there is still widespread hunger in the nation even without a drought' in the passage represents a lacking on the part of the policy-makers. Thus it is entirely likely that they are ignorant of the prevalent hunger. Hence, the given inference is probably true. 2. The phrase 'coexistence of grain surpluses with extensive scale hunger' in the passage clearly shows the given fact. Hence, inference is definitely true. 3. Nothing about the previous year's food grain stock of the nation has been mentioned in the passage. Only the present situation has been discussed. Hence, the data is inadequate. 4. The sentence 'coexistence of grain surpluses with extensive scale hunger should make serious policy-marker think and examine the current policy blend with a perspective to guarantee quicker monetary development and reduction in poverty' clearly shows the given fact. Therefore, the given inference is definitely true.
Model 2: Passage: The domestic market for electronic hardware in the nation is likely to grow from Rs. 2000 crore to about Rs.7000 crore per year in the next few years. The government is likely to further restrict foreign exchange needed for imports. So far, India has been importing about 85% of the components required for manufacturing electronics gadgets. the country produced only 'passive components' like resistors, capacitors and conductors. Even integrated circuits(ICs) are being produced in a small way at high cost. Semi-conductors have remained India's weak spot. 1. In India many manufacturer's are reluctant to produce semi-conductors. 2. An increase of about 250 percent in India's domestic electronic market is predicted during the next few years. Directions: Read the given passage and examine each inference given above in the context of passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark your answer as: a) If the inference is 'definitely true'. b) If the inference is 'probably true'. c) If the 'data provided is inadequate'. d) If the inference is 'probably false'. e) If the inference is 'definitely false'. Solution:
1. According to the passage, India manufactures only 'passive components' and most of the electronic components are being imported. Hence, the given fact is probably true. 2. present value = Rs. 2000 crore. Increase = Rs. (7000 - 2000)
Model 3: Passage: Primary education in Bihar is in a poor shape. Pupil's in over 50 percent of the schools read in the open throughout the year. Over six million children born to lower income group parents remain unlettered. Not even one percent of the 63,000 primary schools have facilities of furniture, toilet, drinking water and games. 3113 new teachers have been appointed in the current financial year out of which 2747 are women. Now each of the 13,270 primary schools have atleast two teachers. 1. In Bihar, 90 % of the primary teachers are women. 2. A large number of primary schools in Bihar are one teacher schools. 3. Classrooms of most of the primary schools in Bihar are inadequate. Directions: Read the given passage and examine each inference given above in the context of passage and decide upon its degree of truth or falsity. Mark your answer as: a) If the inference is 'definitely true'. b) If the inference is 'probably true'. c) If the 'data provided is inadequate'. d) If the inference is 'probably false'. e) If the inference is 'definitely false'. Solution:
1. The given fact is neither mentioned in nor can be derived from the given passage. Therefore, if the 'data provided is inadequate'. 2. It is mentioned in the passage that each of the 13,270 primary schools have at least two teachers. Therefore, if the inference is 'definitely false'.
Model 4: Directions: Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage, decide upon its degree of truth or falsity and choose your answer accordingly from amongst the alternatives provided thereafter. Passage: Dryland farming is the only way to not only combat recurring drought but also meet the increasing food requirements of India. About 45% of India's total crop production now comes from drylands. By the end of this century, this will have to increase to 60% if India is to provide adequate food for projected population of one billion by the turn of the century. 1. Dryland farming is important for India. 2. The per acre crop production is more in drylands than others. 3. In India, the growth of rate of population is 15 percent per annum. Mark your answer as: a) Data inadequate. b) Definitely true. c) Probably true. d) Probably false. e) Definitely false. Solution:
1. Given that: Dryland farming is important for India. The given statement can be derived from the first sentence of the passage. Therefore, it is definitely true. 2. Given that: The per acre crop production is more in drylands than others. Nothing about the per acre crop production in drylands is mentioned in the passage. Therefore, it is definitely false. 3.Given statement: In India, the growth of rate of population is 15 percent per annum. The annual rate of growth of population is not mentioned in the passage. Therefore, the data inadequate.
Model 5: Directions: Below is given a passage followed by several possible inferences which can be drawn from the facts stated in the passage. You have to examine each inference separately in the context of the passage, decide upon its degree of truth or falsity and choose your answer accordingly from amongst the alternatives provided thereafter. Passage: The caffeine in the morning's coffee or tea may improve the complex reasoning ability of extroverts but has the opposite effect on introverts. More than 700 people were given caffeine equal to no more than three cups of coffee and then tested on word analogies, sentence completion, and identification of antonyms. The researchers believe that the caffeine was beneficial to the extroverts in the morning because they take longer to wake up. Introverts are more alert in the morning and become overstimulated by the drug which interferes with their reasoning power. 1. Caffeine has greater effect early in the morning. 2. The adverse effect on the reasoning power of introverts is not due to caffeine. 3. Extroverts do not find caffeine beneficial in the evening. 4. Caffeine affects reasoning ability of people who drink tea or coffee. Mark your answer as: a) Data inadequate. b) Definitely true. c) Probably true. d) Probably false. e) Definitely false. Solution:
1. Given statement: Caffeine has greater effect early in the morning. Here, the passage talks of the effect of caffeine in early morning only. So, the given fact is quite probable. 2. Given statement: The adverse effect on the reasoning power of introverts is not due to caffeine. The given fact directly follows from the last sentence of the passage. Hence, it is definitely false. 3. Given that: Extroverts do not find caffeine beneficial in the evening. Nothing about the effect of caffeine in the evening is mentioned in the passage. Hence, data is inadequate. 4. Given that: Caffeine affects reasoning ability of people who drink tea or coffee. The given fact directly follows from the first sentence of the passage. Therefore, it is definitely true.