: Read the following passage and answer the questions as directed.
The system of “local welfare” schemes set up less than five years ago to provide emergency help to England’s poorest families, often to help them cope with delays and sanctions to their benefits, is on the (A)
of collapse, say poverty campaigners. (B)
A survey of more than 150 council-run schemes by Church Action on Poverty found that nearly a quarter had been shutted down since 2013, while a further quarter have reduced spending by 85% or more. More are expected to close in the next few months. (C)
The destitution (1)
of local welfare would put tens of thousands of vulnerable(2)
people at increased risk(3)
of hunger, debt and demise (4)
, the charity said. The system was designed to help people on low incomes deal with unexpected hardship, (D)
----------, or domestic crises such as broken boilers, house fires and flooding. Huge cuts to council budgets have left the system, which replaced the old social fund, struggling to survive. Provision is so uneven that thousands of people cannot access emergency help from the state, Church Action on Poverty said. “Local authority welfare schemes are increasingly (E)
, leaving families in many areas with nowhere to turn for help,” said the bishop of Manchester, David Walker. “It cannot be right for central and local government to (F) abdicate
responsibility for people in crisis when they need our help most.” In many areas, the most common reason for an application for crisis support is delays or sanctions to benefits, with some councils noting that the five-week minimum wait for a first universal credit payment is an emerging factor in rising demand. Universal credit claimants facing hardship who contact Department for Work and Pensions (DWP) helplines for help are routinely directed to local welfare schemes in their areas if they do not qualify for official advance loans or hardship funds. Church leaders and anti-poverty charities called on ministers to make local welfare provision a legal duty for top-tier councils, and to provide ringfenced funding to protect crisis services. The 153 councils that responded to the survey collectively reduced spending on local welfare by an average of 72% between 2013-14 and 2017-18. (G)
Local welfare provision replaced the discretionary social fund, which in its final year spent £240m in crisis loans and community care grants. (H)
It was going (1)
to councils with DWP funding(2)
in 2013 but that cash was stopped(3)
in 2015, with councils left to decide whether to keep the schemes devolved (4)
. Huge budget pressures faced by councils mean even authorities that have protected local welfare in the past are proposing drastic cuts. West Sussex county council recently unveiled plans for an 80% reduction in its £800,000 crisis fund from next April. (I)
Local welfare has been controversially as most councils refuse to give cash payments to clients in crisis, choosing instead to offer supermarket food vouchers or refer them to food banks. In one case, Isle of Wight council offered a 62-year-old homeless woman a voucher to buy a tent. Only two English councils – Islington in north London and North Tyneside in the north-east – had higher local welfare budget cash totals year compared with 2013, by 12% and 4% respectively. Niall Cooper, the director of Church Action on Poverty, said: “The (J)
------- of the social fund was that people could stay afloat and hopefully ride out a crisis, rather than sinking deeper into poverty. A lifeline in times of emergency is a vital part of a compassionate society, but it has been withdrawn in many places and neglected almost everywhere.”
1. Which of the following word given in the options should come at the place marked as (A) in the above paragraph to make it grammatically correct and meaningful. Also, the word should fill in the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful.
She stood out of his way, barely able to care for a child and at a loss as to what to do with a boy on the …………………. of becoming a teenager.
He found the country on the …………………. of revolution; but the wisdom of the new monarch saved the situation and won back the Magyars.
: Option (C)
: 'Verge' means an extreme limit beyond which something specified will happen. So, 'verge' is an appropriate choice here.
2. In the passage given, a sentence (B) is given in italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there in no error then choose option (E) as your answer.
A. A survey of more than 150 council-run schemes by
B. Church Action on Poverty found that nearly a quarter
C. had been shutted down since 2013, while a further
D. quarter have reduced spending by 85% or more.
E. No Error
: Option (C)
: Error is in the part given in option (C). 'shut' is to be used in place of 'shutted'. There is no such word as 'shutted' in English dictionary. Further, 'has been' takes third form of verb and third form of 'shut' is 'shut' itself.
3. The sentence given in (C) has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words which of the following must replace each other to make the sentence contextually correct and meaningful.
: Option (A)
: 'destitution' and 'demise' should replace each other. 'Demise' means the end or failure of an enterprise or institution.
'Destitution' means poverty so extreme that one lacks the means to provide for oneself.
4. Which of the following phrases should fill the blank in (D) to make it contextually correct and meaningful?
A. facing the severe impacts caused by the crisis
B. including job programmes and childcare, but also transfers to other state programmes,
C. which are a cause of severe balance of payments
D. so some avoid them by limiting how many people are eligible for welfare in the first place.
E. such as a lack of money caused by benefit payment problems
: Option (E)
: 'such as a lack of money caused by benefit payment problems' is the correct phrase her. the preceding statement talks about hardships and this phrase explains the type of hardship, thus maintaining the continuity of the sentence.
5. Which of the following word given in the options should come at the place marked as (E) in the above paragraph to make it grammatically correct and meaningful. Also, the word should fill in the two sentences given below to make them contextually correct and meaningful.
After living in the woods for a week without supplies, my ______. clothing was not protecting me from the elements.
The Defence Department generally defended its existing programs, though the rationale for them was growing __________.
E. Both (B) and (C)
: Option (B)
: 'Threadbare' means (of an argument, excuse, idea, etc.) used so often that it is no longer effective. Also, it means poor or shabby in appearance. So, threadbare fits in all the sentences correctly.
6. A word is given in bold in (F). Choose the word which should replace the word given in bold to make the sentence correct and meaningful. If no change is required, choose option e as your answer.
E. No Change
: Option (E)
: No Change. 'Abdicate' means fail to fulfill or undertake (a responsibility or duty). Hence, it is correct in context of the sentence.
7. Two sentences are given in italics on both sides of (G). Which of the following statements can come in between the two sentences in place of (G) and maintain the continuity of the paragraph?
A. The dynamic nature of our preferred model allows to estimate the long‐term effect of a 1 per cent increase in social spending, which is found to be in the order of a 0.057 points increase in the IHDI.
B. Continuing investments in the social sectors have been recognized by the international community.
C. Local authorities are responsible for using their funds to best meet the needs of their residents, and over the next two years we are providing them with £90.7bn to do so.
D. Together they spent £46m on local welfare last year, compared with a national budget of £172m in 2013-14.
E. One million people have been lifted out of absolute poverty since 2010 and household incomes have never been higher.
: Option (D)
: The correct option is (d) 'Together they spent £46m on local welfare last year, compared with a national budget of £172m in 2013-14.' As the previous statement is about the councils spending on local welfare and the statement in (d) also discusses their collective spending. Hence, it is the correct choice
8. The sentence given in (H) has four words given in bold. Amongst the given bold words which of the following must replace each other to make the sentence contextually correct and meaningful.
: Option (A)
: 1 and 4 should replace each other. 'Going' and 'devolved' should replace each other to make the sentence correct. 'Devolve' means transfer or delegate (power) to a lower level, especially from central government to local or regional administration.
9. In the passage given, a sentence (I) is given in italics. There may or may not be an error in one part of the sentence. Choose the part which has an error in it as your answer. If there in no error then choose option (e) as your answer.
A. Local welfare has been controversially
B. as most councils refuse to give cash payments to clients
C. in crisis, choosing instead to offer supermarket
D. food vouchers or refer them to food banks.
E. No Error
: Option (A)
: Error is in the part given in option (a). An adjective is to be used here so 'controversial' should be used in place of 'controversially'
10. Which of the following words should fill the blank given in (J) to make it contextually correct and meaningful?
: Option (D)
: 'Purpose' is the most appropriate word here.